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Language Disorders

Test 3 Lessons 17-21

QuestionAnswer
Developmental (deficit) Approach -Uses norm-referenced tests to determine how far behind the child’s language is. -Views the child from where he is supposed to be. -Measures progress by how much the deficit is decreased. -Child is most deficient in earlier developing skills.
Which approach encourages task refusal? Deficit (developmental) approach
What approach is being used in the following scenario? 3 yr old is at 1-word stage, we try to teach 2-word constructions. By targeting earlier developing skills, our intervention should reduce the language gap b/w the child and his normal peers Developmental (deficit approach)
Functional Approach Target skills that would have the greatest impact on the child’s life. i.e. Those skills that are relevant to the child’s immediate every-day needs are more likely to be reinforced at home, and thus generalized to environments outside the therapy room.
Readiness Approach -Evaluates child’s readiness to acquire skills -Philosophy:There are prerequisite skills necessary for behavioral change. People who possess those skills are ripe for change in that area. -Measures progress by how much new skills have been mastered.
Readiness Prerequisites for Change 1.Realization that what you're doing is not what you're supposed to do 2.Awareness of difference b/w what you're doing & goal 3 Ability to modify what you are doing b/c not going to teach something to child unless they show that they are stimulable.
What are the linguistic signs of readiness oStimulability oConsistency oRepairs oOvergeneralization oRobust vs. Fragile oSpontaneous Imitation oSentence building oCelebration of learning
What is the primary sign for readiness? Stimulability
Example of Stimulability for two word combo Can the child produce or come close to producing a two-word combination in the most optimal conditions (with all the possible feedback you can give him. Verbal cues, auditory cues, tactile cues, etc.)
Example of Consistency for two word combo Can the child sometimes produce two-word combinations correctly without being stimulated.
Example of Repairs for two word combo Self correction. Child produces a two-word combination incorrectly and goes back to fix the error.
Overgeneralization for passed tense -Using a rule to a fault (a place where it doesn't belong). -Child says growed instead of grew
Fragile as it relates to Language Therapy -susceptible to influence -If you model a change will the child imitate it? -Stimulable
Robust -Very stubborn behaviors -Not susceptible to change. -Child makes same errors over and over again despite modeling -Not stimulable
Spontaneous Imitation -When child imitates part or all of a sentence the clinician just said without being prompted to do so. -If we see child spontaneously imitating something they are trying to work that out in their heads. We should notice that and should target that.
Sentence building -Ex. Man hungry, Dog hungry, Baby Hungry. -When the child uses that same sentence but changes it slightly.
Celebration of learning When a child gets excited after they master a new skill. They want to let everyone know they have conquered something.
What is a Clinician Directed service delivery model? -Clinician is in complete control of the language-learning situation. -She decides what the client should learn, how it will be learned, and where the learning occurs. Attempt to make direct and specific changes to the child language abilities.
What is a Child-Centered service delivery model? -Child is the initiator while the clinician is the responder. It is pragmatically based so the child speaks because the clinician has created the need to communicate -Not all attempts at communication must be verbally spoken Techniques: self/parallel
What is the hierarchy for Levels of Language Impairment? •Active Language Users but Impaired •Verbal but Limited Language •Interactive but non-verbal •Preconversational
Of what use are the classification of Levels of Language Impairment. -This classification is useful in determining the service delivery model for each client. -Helps clinician to determine whether to use Clinician-Directed or Child-Centered therapy approach, or a combo of there of.
What type of therapy approach should be used if a client is active language but impaired? Clinician Directed
What type of therapy approach should be used if a client is Verbal but has Limited Language Approach should be mostly Clinician Directed, but some Child-Centered
What type of therapy approach should be used if a client is interactive but non-verbal Approach should be mostly child centered but some clinician directed
What type of therapy approach should be used if a client is Preconversational? Child Centered
Self-talk To talk about what you are doing, seeing, eating, touching, or thinking when your child is present. In other words, narrate your actions. i.e. “I’m washing the dishes. Now, I’m drying them. All done.”
Parallel talk To talk about what your child is doing, seeing, eating, or touching. In other words, narrate what he is doing. Some examples include: • “You’re building a big tower!” Wow! •“Uh oh, your tower fell down.” •“You’re cleaning up!”
expansions Build on what the child says EXAMPLE Client:Dolly Sick. SLP: Oh, the dolly is sick.
recast sentences Repeat through question form? Client:Dolly sick. SLP: Is the dolly sick?
Who are swimmers as it relates to language? -Clients who are communicators or at least use gestures -They will make attempts to communicate whether they do it exactly right or make mistakes. -They are active communicators who make some specific types of mistakes (that may warrant correction)
Who are non-swimmers as it relates to language? -These children don't communicate at all -See others as intruders -This therapy will be child centered
Who are preconversational children? -Does not mean that these children are non-verbal. -May or may not have an extensive vocabulary. -May or may not produce multiword utterances. -Designation has little to do with the amount of language they have.
What is the preconversational child's biggest problem? They have severe limits on the degree to which they use the language they have for social/communicative purposes.
What level of language impairment do many children with autism fall in? Preconversational
What's the purpose of the ECO program? -Help children develop from initial play competencies to competencies with conversations for friendship & learning. -Children to develop relationships through interactions & have an interest in initiating & maintaining the relationships.
What is the core belief of the ECO program? o Children learn through their relationships and interactions with communicative partners.
Why do preconversational children prefer to interact with toys rather than other people? -Enjoy feeling of control -They lack communicative & social skills, they don’t know how to successfully interact. -They prefer to be left alone
Communicative competence -The ability to intentionally affect or influence another person’s behavior through active signaling. -How social are the child’s purposes for communicating
Social relatedness The degree of interest a child has in:  1. being with you  2. being like you  3. giving comfort  4. receiving comfort  5. sharing feelings  6. sharing experiences
Need for the Balance Partnership Principle -The more severe the child’s impairment, the more adults tend to dominate their interactions. Don't allow time for child to respond or initiate. -“The passive roles we place our clients in make them appear a lot more delayed than they really are.”
Goal of the Balance Partnership Principle -Adults need to become equal partners; as adults do less, the child will do more
Need for the Matching Partnership Principle -Adults interact far above the child’s level of performance.
Goal of the Matching Partnership Principle -The more you match your communication and actions in ways the child can understand, the more the child will stay with you.
Need for the Sensitive Responsiveness Partnership Principle -Adults frequently ignore, or fail to respond, to a severely-impaired child’s primitive communicative acts.
Goal of the Sensitive Responsiveness Partnership Principle -Become sensitive to the child’s abilities, limitations, and level of functioning. -Respond to each interactive behavior. “Children choose the world that allows the most freedom, support, and access.” “You can’t match a child’s behavior if you are no
Need for the Child-Based, Non-Directiveness Partnership Principle -By asking questions and giving directives, you are forcing your agenda on the child. You’re creating a role for the child.
Goal of the Child-Based, Non-Directiveness Partnership Principle : Allow the child to have control of the learning situation. Permit him to express and assert himself. . . to affect your behavior.
Need for the Sensitive Emotional Attachment Partnership Principle -Clinicians/parents, pressure change the child, make engagement less likely. If we force a child into an interaction & he fails, the child’sdesire to engage decreases. -More severe the child’s impairment, the more business-like the(less attached) parents
Goal of the Sensitive Emotional Attachment Partnership Principle Build spontaneous relationships. Develop genuine emotional attachment through mutual enjoyment and success. - Make the child feel competent -Help the child have fun and want to engage -Get the kid attached/ engaged. What we do not so important
What is Applied Behavioral Analysis? -Applied Behavioral Analysis is a highly intensive, structured behavioral approach utilizing precise teaching techniques. -The trainer arranges consequences that lead to an increase in correct responses, and a decrease in incorrect responses.
What is the goal of Applied Behavioral Analysis -Goal is to minimize the child’s failures & maximize his successes.
How is Applied Behavioral Analysis fundamentally different from MacDonald’s ECO approach? Applied Behavioral Analysis is different from the ECO approach because the ECO approach focuses on what adults need to do to encourage interactions between themselves and the child. The focus in on what the adult needs to do in order to change the child.
What is the relationship between PDD and Autism, Asberger’s, etc.? All fall under the umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
What problem do people w/ ASD primarily have? -Primary problem with socialization/pragmatic skills. -People who have ASD may/may not have language; whatever communication skills they have, either verbal or nonverbal, they tend not to use them for social communicative purposes.
What is the scientific relationship between MMR vaccinations and autism? None
What is the scientific evidence for treating Autism with special diets? none
What is “Pragmatic Intervention?” -For the interactive non verbal child -Generate a need to communicate, wait for the child to act, respond immediately to the child -Goal is to expand the reasons a child communicates regardless of the means
What is “First Words” intervention -For verbal/ limited language user -Goal:Increase the frequency w/ which the child uses speech to make things happen -Emphasis:Getting the child to use words he already has rather than teaching new words.
What is the Target and sequence for First Words Intervention -Target: Some core vocab, but child can choose what words he will use. Therapy: -Generate a need to communicate -Wait for the child to act -Respond immediately to the child
What are the problems with targeting specific words for a child with limited speech? -All speech is generated from the child’s desire to communicate something -If no social need or personal desire the child will not generalize the skill
What is a model? -Given before the client's speaks -Used to elicit correct speech from a child. -It may consist of a sample sentence or just target words. -Goal: NOT imitation, but rather encourage the child to use target grammar/vocabulary in another situation.
What is a prompt? -Used after a child says something to cue them into what they've done wrong. -Ex: expansion (child – “Him running,” SLP – “Yes, he is running)
Why would you want to do an oral-motor assessment of a non-verbal child who is otherwise an active communicator? -Determine whether the cause of language deficit is due to oral-motor problem -Is structure adequate for speech? -Can this child make sounds, even though they are not talking?
Why would you be interested in assessing a non-verbal child’s receptive language skills? Of what use would this information be? -Abilities to determine how is the child’s language comprehension, and does he have a generalized language problem, or are his limitations primarily expressive?
Ecological validity Changes made by the client can be observed in other environments
Social validity Changes made by the client can be observed (noticed) by other individuals
What recommendations are made in the ASHA Position Paper on Social Dialects? -Priority of SLP to serve the truly communicatively handicapped. -- Can serve nonstandard speakers by request. -Can also serve in a consultative role to assist teachers
What is the reasoning behind Dr. Sol Adler's belief as to the speech-language pathologist’s role in dealing with multicultural populations? SLPs should support mandatory bidialectalism and serve as consultants to educators to implement bidialectal programs -Believes this will help improve reading/writing (academic) skills, increase employability and improve pragmatics.
What is the concept of Inclusion? -An educational philosophy of unitary schooling system that is adaptive to meet the needs of all children in a flexible manner. -All children,normal or disordered, in the same classroom instead of segregated special ed. -Results in better carryover
How does service delivery model differ for Inclusion? -Ideally, disordered children will have models from typically developing children. Model peers are trained w/ techniques to help communication. -The SLPs would go into classrooms for therapy instead of through pull outs in a separated classroom.
What is Collaborative Teaching? All stakeholders (parent, student, teacher, and SLP) are involved in the therapy approach. -The teacher and SLP work side-by-side to deliver the best instruction and help the child meet certain goals that they have both agreed upon.
How Collaborative Teaching implemented? o The SLP goes into the classroom and delivers therapy, much like inclusion, but there is a plan decided on by the teacher and SLP collectively.
What are the advantages of Collaborative Teaching? -Everyone on same page as to what child needs & best way for him to get it. -Built to help child functionally in the classroom, -Classroom provides meaningful experiences not available in isolated individual intervention -Even normal children benefit
Phonemic/ Phonological Awareness -The structure of words rather than their meaning. -Includes the earlier stages, such as rhyme and syllable awareness. -Understanding that words are composed of sounds
Phonics/ Phonological memory -Associating sounds with letter, teaching how each letter sounds as a strategy to read
What skill is considered the entry point to phonemic awareness The ability to rhyme
What does it mean to be aware that words can have a similar end-sound Implies a critical step in metalinguistic understanding; that of ignoring the meaning of a word in order to attend to its internal structure.
At what age can make judgments such as when words rhyme, and when they begin with the same sound (alliteration) 3 or 4
Rhymes Are words that sound the same but are not necessarily made up of the same word parts/vowels (ex: hey, weigh, ray)
Rimes Sound the same but are made up of the same word parts (ex: hay, say, lay)
Contextualized Speech -Face to face interactions where the topic of conversation is here and now presented in the context with all communicative partners being direct observers of events taking place. -Used to regulate social interactions of the present
Decontextualized -Written word -Communication about people, places & events that are not present at the time of the convo -Used to talk about the past or future and to share info about abstract objects, events, and situations that are removed from the immediate context
What are literate language features. Unique linguistic features that are used in decontextualized discourse situations
What are the four most common Literate Language Features -Noun phrase elaboration: adding articles, adjectives, possessives, demonstratives and quantifiers -Adverbs: almost, now, nowhere, often, quickly -Conjunctions: and, or, but, so, b/c -Mental/linguistic verbs: think, know, tell, call, screamed, whined
What have studies shown about the presence of Literate Language Features? -The presence or absence of these in young children differentiates those with normal language from those whose language is impaired. -The frequency of these found in the narratives of preschoolers is also predictive of later school performance
Why reading fluency is important to reading comprehension Large amounts of cognitive capacity are employed in this process, and the resultant slow reading speed taxes working memory. This hinders the child’s ability to comprehend what they have read.
What are some of the early signs/stages of reading development? -Turning pages, pointing to pictures, pretending to read, naming letters, joining in or repeating phrases of a familiar story, asking what a word says, picking out letters, such as those in their names, or words on a page.
What are some of the early signs/stages of writing development? Watching closely when another person writes -scribbling, making scribbles that look a bit like letters -telling you what a scribble “says”, producing what look like “words” for others to read, making lists, using their own spelling for word.
What is the National Reading Panel and what is its purpose? -Panel to assess the status of research-based knowledge, including effectiveness of various approaches to teaching children to read. -Reviewed 100,000 studies -Conducted hearings, listened to testimony of teachers, parents, students & policymakers.
What is metalinguistic awareness -The ability to think about, analyze and compare the structural components of words, independent of meaning
What are the early signs that a child may be at risk for reading difficulties? -Poor metalinguistic awareness -Poor receptive vocabulary -Limited storybook reading to the child -Absence of reading materials in the home -Child as a first relative with a reading deficits
What does the field of speech-language pathology have to do with reading problems? Why should we even be seeing such children and what is our role, if any? -Our role for preschool and early elementary level is preventive. -With older children and adults, SLPs are concerned with improving reading and writing skills.
Why should speech-language pathologists work with families who have children with language impairment? -Many parents of children with impaired language do not provide a communicative environment that is appropriate for language-learning. Therefore, there is a need to intervene with the parents as well as the child with impaired language.
• Describe the differences in the interactions between parents and their typically developing children versus parents and children with language impairments -Interactions b/w parents & normally developing children are more child-lead. Parents of impaired children become regulatory in their communication.
What's the consequence of the reducing a child to the responder? -The child experiences less communicative power. -Language becomes less of a tool they use to make things happen & more something that happens to them.
What is our goal when working with the parents of language impaired children? -Extend the opportunities for language learning and help the child to once again become the communication initiator. Parents can facilitate this by focusing on two goals: 1)Become equal communicative partners. 2) Engage in dialogue with their child.
Created by: aramos139