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Bus 137 Key Terms

Management Getting work done through others
Efficiency Getting work done with a minimum of effort, expense, or waste
Effectiveness Accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives
Planning Determining organizational goals and a means for achieving them
Organizing Deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work for whom
Leading Inspiring and motivating workers to work hard to achieve organizational goals
Controlling Monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective actions when needed
Top managers Executives responsible for the overall direction of the organization
Middle managers Responsible for setting objectives consistent with top management's goals and for planning and implementing subunit strategies for achieving these objectives
First-line managers Train and supervise the performance of non-mangerial employees who are directly responsible for producing the company's products or services
Team Leaders Managers responsible for facilitating team actives toward goal accomplishment
Figurehead role The interpersonal role managers play when they perform ceremonial duties
Leader role The interpersonal role managers play when they motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organizational objectives
Liaison role The interpersonal role managers play when they deal with people outside their units
Monitor role The informational role managers play when they scan their environment for information
Disseminator role The informational role managers play when they share information with others in their departments or companies
Spokesperson role The informational role managers play when they share information with people outside their departments or companies
Entrepreneur role The decisional role managers play when they adapt themselves, their subordinates, and their units to change
Scientific management Thoroughly studying and testing different work methods to identify the best, most efficient way to complete a job
Soldiering When workers deliberately slow their pace or restrict their work output
Rate buster A group member whose work pace is significantly faster than the normal pace in his or her group
Motion study Breaking each task or job into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive
Time study Timing how long it takes good workers to complete each part of their jobs
Gantt chart A graphical chart that shows which task must be completed at which times in order to complete a project or task
Bureaucracy The exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience
Domination An approach to dealing with conflict in which one party satisfies its desires and objectives at the expense of the other party's desires and objectives
Comprimise An approach to dealing with conflict in which both parties give up some of what they want in order to reach agreement on a plan to reduce or settle the conflict
Integrative conflict resolution An approach to dealing with conflict in which both parties indicate their preferences and then work together to find an alternative that meets the needs of both
Organization A system of consciously coordinated actives or forces created by two or more people
System A set of interrelated elements or parts that function as a whole
Subsystems Smaller systems that operate within the context of a larger system
Synergy When two or more subsystems working together can produce more than they can working apart
Closed systems Systems that can sustain themselves without interacting with their environments
Open systems Systems that can sustain themselves only by interacting with their environments, on which they depend for their survival
Coningency Holds that there are no universal management theories and that the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers are facing at a particular time and place
External environments All events outside a company that have the potential to influence or affect it
Environmental change The rate at which a company's general and specific environments change
Stable environment An environment in which the rate of change is slow
Dynamic environment An environment in which the rate of change in fast
Punctuated equilibrium theory The theory that companies go through long periods of stability (equilibrium), followed by short periods of dynamic, fundamental change (revolutionary periods), and then a new equilibrium
Environmental complexity The number and the intensity of external factors in the environment that affect organizations
Simple environment An environment with few environmental factors
Complex environment An environment with many environmental factors
Resource scarcity The abundance or shortage of critical organizational resources in an organizations's external environment
Uncertainty Extent to which managers can understand or predict which envirnmental changes and trends with affect their business
General environment The economic, technological, sociocultures, and political/legal trends that idirectly affect all organizations
Specific environment The customers, competitors, suppliers, industry regulations, and advocacy groups that are unique to an industry and directly affect how a company
Created by: amethystMT9611