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Immunohematology

Immunohematology 1- Chapter 1-6

QuestionAnswer
Refactoriness is: Unresponsiveness to platelet transfusions owing to HLA-specific or platelet specific antibodies
Antibodies with specificities other than self: Alloantibodies
Which antibody class is most effective at activating complement? IgM
All of the following are differences between IgG and IgM class antibodies: ability to cross the placenta, optimum reaction temperature, and size The same: cause intravascular red cell destruction
The secondary immune response usually occurs within: 5-7 days
What portion of the antibody molecule binds to receptors on macrophages and assists in the removal of antibody bound to red cells? Fab fragment
Which antibody class can cross the placenta and cause Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn and Fetus? IgG
What is responsible for the activation of the classic pathway of complement? Antibody bound to antigen
The attachment of an antibody to a single antigen is termed: Sensitization
What is the potential effect in a tube agglutination test if a red cell suspension with a concentration greater than 5% is used? False Negative
Estimated parentage of donors that would be incompatible with a transplant patient: CPRA
After adding antigen and antibody to a test tube, one large agglutinate was observed. How should this reaction be graded? 4+
What would increase the strength of a weak IgM antibody reaction? Cool the test to 5 degrees C
The Fab portion of the IgG antibody: Is similar for all IgG antibodies, is the binding site for the antigen-antibody reaction, and is capable of binding 10 separate antigens ( does all of these)
What is the strongest binding force between an antibody and an antigen? Ionic bonding
After adding antigen and antibody to a test tube, centrifugation, and then gently shaking the tube, the cells all disperse back into the solution. How should this reaction be graded? 0
When the concentration of antibody exceeds the concentration of antigen, antibody excess: Prozone
One difference between the primary and secondary immune response is: The secondary response produces a greater total number of antibodies
Select the cell that produces antibodies: Plasma cells
An antigen capable of producing an immune response is call an: Immunogen
Referring to a reaction within the body: In vivo
Hemagglutination can be enhanced by increasing: The incubation time
Tech places test tubes in centrifuge, presses start button & walks away. It is unplugged & doesn't spin, doesn't notice. Tech returns 15 mins later, takes out the tubes & shakes them down. What is the possible consequences of the centrifuge not working? False negative reaction
An antigen is: A molecule, often on the surface of a cell, binds to and antibody or T-cell receptor
What cells expresses HLA class II antigens? B cells
The term that describes the unique part of the antigen that is recognized by a corresponding antibody: Epitope
______ molecules are usually not good immunogenic substances. Lipid
The chemical composition of an antibody is: Glycoprotein
In a hemagglutination test, the antigen is: On the red cell membrane
Molecules that bind to an antigen to increase phagocytosis are: Opsonins
An epitope is also termed an: Antigenic determinant
Agglutination reactions characterized by many small agglutinates in a background of free cells would be graded in tube testing as: 1+
What is the genotype of a type O person? OO
Potentiators are used in antiglobulin testing to: Increase the strength of agglutination
An amorph is a gene which is: Silent
The term used when two of the same forms of a gene are inherited from each parent is: Homozygous
A reagent is considered potent if: It reacts strongly
What step comes first in the indirect antiglobulin test? Incubate the test tube at 37 degree C for 15 minutes
Testing in the immunohematology lab uses the interaction of what two things? Antibody and antigen
Monospecific AHG reagents: Contain either anti-IgG or anti-C3d antibody specificities
If the parents of a child are type B and type AB, what blood types could not be found among their children? O
The ABO type of reagent cells used for antibody screens and panels should be: O
Routine antigen testing determines: Phenotype
The different genetic possibilities at a single loci are called: Polymorphisms
ABO/Rh typing usually uses which test methodology? Immediate spin
What is the possible adverse consequence of shaking the tubes too hard during testing? False negative reactions
What is neutralization in antiglobulin testing? Failure to wash away the unbound antibodies
What is a source of antigen? Patient red cells
When an individual is said to be group A, it refers to the individual's: Phenotype
Which of the children below could be the offspring of parents with the following phenotypical expressions: O Positive, CcEkMSs A Positive, CEKkMNS O Positive, CcEKMNS
An antibody that reacts more strongly with a homozygous expression of an antigen than with a heterozygous expression is said to be showing: Dosage
What color is anti-A: Blue
In antibody identification, dosage refers to: The number of antibodies present in the patient sample
Most blood group antigens are expressed by genes that are: Codominant
In antiglobulin testing, sensitization refers to: The initial binding of an antibody to an antigen
What is a blood group system? ABO
Genes located close together on the same chromosomes are less likely to: Cross over
To determine the specificity of a red cell antigen in a patient sample, what source of antibody is selected? Commercial antisera
To determine the presence of a red cell antibody in a patient sample, what source of antigen is selected? Commercial reagent red cells
What reagents are derived from plant extracts? Lectins
What describes the expression of most blood group inheritance? Codominant
In relationship testing, a "direct exclusion" is established when a genetic marker is: Present in the child but absent in both the mother and the alleged father
The term used when two of the same alleles of a gene are inherited from each parent is: Homozygous
Alternate forms of a gene at given genetic loci are called: Alleles
The technique that uses a small amount of DNA and amplifies it for identification is called: PCR
The phosphate, sugar, and base that constitute DNA and RNA are called: Nucleotides
Genes located close together on the same chromosome are more likely to: Be inherited as a haplotype
A gene inherited in a cis position to another gene is: On the same chromosome
Using known sources of reagent antigen to detect ABO antibodies in a patient's plasma is known as: Reverse grouping
What is the ABO interpretation for the following results? ABO typing results: Group B Patient RBCs with: Patient Serum with Reagent RBCs: Anti-A Anti-B A1 B 0 4+ 4+ 0
What situations may produce ABO discrepancies in the serum testing? Newborn, Patient with hypogammaglobulinemia, and cold alloantibody (All of the above)
A patient's red cells agglutinated by anti-B, but not anti-A. This person would have which ABO phenotypes? Group B
Bombay phenotype: Lacks expression or both H and ABO antigens
What blood types for a unit of packed red cells would not be given to a B positive individual? A Positive
The first step in resolution of ABO discrepancy: To identify the source of the problem
What ABO phenotypes would be compatible if the pt required a transfusion of fresh frozen plasma? Patient RBCs w/ Patient Serum w/ Reagent RBCs Anti-A =0 Anti-B =4+ A1 =4+ B =0 Group B or AB
What situations is most likely to cause intravascular hemolysis when an incompatible transfusion is given? Group B packed cells to a Group O recipient
What ABO phenotypes would be compatible if the patient below required a transfusion of red blood cells? Patient RBCs w/ Patient serum w/ reagent RBCs Anti-A =0 Anti-B =4+ A1 = 4+ B =0 Group O or B
The anti-B made by a type A person will be mostly: IgM
A2 cells differ from A1 cells in that they: Only have linear A antigens
What ABO phenotype would agglutinate in the presence of anti-A,B produced by group O individuals? A and B
A group A man marries a group AB woman. The father of the group A man was group O. What possible ABO phenotypes could be expected in the offsprings? Group A, B, and AB
Select the ABO phenotypes, in order from most frequent to least frequent, that occur in whites: O, A, B, AB
What gene controls the presence of the H substance in saliva? Se
A and B antigens can be found in all the following: Tears, Saliva, and Plasma Except: spinal fluid
Given the following ABO phenotyping data: FORWARD REVERSE Anti-A:2+ mf Anti-B:0 A1 cells:0 B cells:3+ What could be a plausible explanation for this discrepancy? Group O blood products given to group A
Which ABO phenotype selection contains the most H antigens and the least H antigen, respectively, on the red cell's surface? O, A1B
Landsteiner's rule: Healthy individuals possess ABO antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens absent from their red cells
This system was created in the 1980s to standardize blood group systems and antigen names: ISBT
To distinguish between and A1 and A2 blood type, which reagent is used? Dolichos biflorus lectin
What statement is true about ABO antibody production? ABO antibodies are stimulated by bacteria and other environmental factors
A D negative woman gives birth to a D negative, weak D positive infant. The woman: Should receive Rh immune globulin (RHoGAM)
What genotypes is heterozygous for the C antigen? R1r
The E and e antigens of the Rh blood group system: Differ by just on amino acid
The frequency of the D-negative phenotype in the population is: 15%
Anti-D was detected in the serum of a D-positive person. What is a possible explanation? Missing antigen epitope
All of the following can cause the D antigen expression to be weaker: Partial D expression, inheriting the C antigen in trans to the D antigen, and RHD gene that is genetically weaker Can NOT: inheriting the G gene
Anti-D reagent and the Rh control were tested with red cells. Both tests were 2+ agglutination reactions. What is the interpretation of the results? Unable to interpret without further testing
The results of a weak D test on a patient with a positive direct antiglobulin test would be: Unreliable because of immunoglobulins already on the red cells
A cis-product antigen; presents when c and e are inherited as a haplotype: f
A patient with Anti-G would need to receive which blood type? rr"
A patient who needs blood tests negative for D, but positive for weak D. She should receive what Rh blood type? Rh-negative
What is the likelihood that two heterozygous D-positive parents will have a D-negative child? 25%
Convert CDE/CdE to Weiner notation: Rzry
The weak D test detects: A weak D antigen
The most immunogenic antigen in the Rh blood group: D antigen
Testing for the weak D expression is performed by: Performing the indirect antiglobulin test with anti-D
Most Rh antibodies are: IgG and bind at 37 degrees C
The blood group system that was originally identified as the Rh blood group system is now called: LW
The term Rh positive refers to: The presence of the D antigen
The Rh genotype CDE/cDE is written in Wiener notation as: RzR2
In Rosenfield notation, the phenotype of a donor may be written as Rh:1,-2,-3,4,5. What is the correct phenotype in Fisher-Race(CDE) notation? cDe
Anti-f was identified in a patient. Because commercial antisera are not available, what is the best course of action to locate compatible RBC units? Crossmatch c-negative units
A patient's Rh genotype was determined to D+, c+, e+, C-, E-. The race is most likely: Black
The test for the weak D antigen involves: The IAT
The anti-G antibody would be negative with which of the following red cell genotypes? rr
Created by: Megan Hohenberg