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physio lab exp#8

Sensory Physiology

Sensory receptors Cells that respond to different stimuli and are responsible for your experience of your environment
There are 7 types of sensory receptors: Mechanoreceptors, Electromagnetic, Chemoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, Nociceptors, Proprioceptors, and Baroreceptors
muscles of the eye: (4) Rectus Muscles Superior, Inferior, Medial, and Lateral
What do the rectus muscles do? Elevate and Depres the eyeball
muscles of the eye: (2) Oblique Muscles Superior and Inferior
What do the oblique muscles do? Circumvent the eyeball
the middle tunica (the uvea) consists of what? (3) choroid, iris, and pupil
the uvea is the _________ tunica of the eye vascular
uvea: choroid the posterior part that has darker pigment so that light isn’t scattered within the eye
uvea: iris the colored portion of the eye.
uvea: what does the iris control? the amount of light entering the eye;
uvea: pupil the middle opening of the iris involved with light allowances
retina receptive surface inside the eye that contains photoreceptors and other neurons
photoreceptor a neural cell in the retina that responds to light
rod photoreceptor cell in retina that is most active at low levels of light
cone any of several classes of photoreceptor cells that are responsible for color vision
bipolar cell an interneuron that receives information from rods and cones and passes the information to retinal ganglion cells
ganglion cell cells in the retina whose axons form the optic nerve
optic nerve collection of ganglion cell axons that extend from the retina to the brain
what are the different layers of the retina optic nerve, ganglion cell layer, inner synaptic layer, bipolar layer, outer synaptic layer, photoreceptor layer, and pigmented layer
there are three cell types in the bipolar layer: horizontal cell, bipolar cell, amacrine cell
horizontal cell contacts both receptor cells and bipolar cells
amacrine cell contacts both bipolar cells and ganglionic cells (and is especially significant in inhibitory interactions within the retina)
Visual Transduction Pathway: Light rays excite _______ cells ganglion
Visual Transduction Pathway: the excitation of ganglion cells stimulate what kind of cells? bipolar cells
Visual Transduction Pathway: Then ____________ are stimulated photoreceptors (rods and cones)
Visual Transduction Pathway: Change in membrane potential on the photoreceptors directs the... visual signal in the opposite direction for data processing
Visual Transduction Pathway: Signal sent to __________, then ______ ___, then _________ ____ Signal sent to photoreceptors, then bipolar cells, then sent to ganglion cells
Visual Transduction Pathway: Axons of ganglion cells exit through the _______ _______ optic nerve. (CN II)
nerve impulses propagate along optic nerve towards ______ ____ optic disc
optic disc the region of the retina that is devoid of receptor cells because ganglion cell axons and blood vessels exit the eyeball there
cataracts opacity of the eye
cataracts are caused by what three things? Heredity, aging, and disease condition (diabetes)
Glaucoma Increased intraocular pressure that can lead to BLINDNESS
2 ways it is caused: 1) Hyperactivity of the ciliary body whose function is to what? produce aqueous humor
2 ways it is caused: 2) Blockage or plug of drainage structure of the eye know as the ______ of ________ Canal of Schlemm
Aqueous humor: contained in the anterior chamber; similar to plasma; bathes the cells providing nutrients such as Vit. C
Vitreous Humor: contained in posterior portion of the eye; functions to keep retina pushed against the back of the eyeball; also provides nutrients to the cells
Errors of Refraction: Emmetropia the normal refractive condition of the eye in which with accommodation relaxed parallel rays of light are all brought accurately to a focus upon the retina
Errors of Refraction: Myopia nearsightedness, the image is focused in front of the retina.
Errors of Refraction: how is myopia corrected? concave lens
Errors of Refraction: Hyperopia farsightedness, image would be focused behind the retina.
Errors of Refraction: how is hyperopia corrected? convex lens.
Errors of Refraction: astygmatism nonuniform curvature of the cornea that causes the eye to focus images at different distances (two focal points)
What is the Snellen Acuity Chart used for? to diagnose myopia
how do you read the snellen acuity chart? Numerator = YOUR VISION Denominator = AVERAGE JOE
so if you got 20/200... what would that mean? you can read at 20 feet a letter that people with "normal" vision can read at 200 feet.
what are the three divisions of the ear? outer, middle, inner
the outer ear consists of what three things? auricle (pinna), the External Auditory Canal (meatus), and the Eardrum(TM)
What is the Auricle (pinna) responsible for? collecting sound waves
What is the external auditory canal (meatus) responsible for? for directing sound waves towards the tympanic membrane (eardrum)
What is the eardrum (TM)? structure that separates the outer from the middle ear
How does the eardrum work? sound waves cause vibrations to occur
The Middle Ear consists of what two things? Auditory Ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes), Auditory Tube (Eustachian Tube)
What is the function of the Auditory Ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)? to transmit and amplify vibrations from TM to oval window
What is the function of the Auditory Tube (Eustachian Tube)? connects middle ear with nasopharynx; equalizes air pressure on both sides of TM.
the inner ear consists of what four things? cochlea, organ of corti, semicircular canals, and vestibule (ultricle/saccule)
cochlea contains a series of fluids, channels and membranes that transmit vibrations to the Organ of Corti.
organ of corti houses the hair cells which are the receptors for hearing.
semicircular canals maintains dynamic equilibrium
ultricle/saccule maintain static and dynamic equilibrium
Vestibular system the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about movement and sense of balance (which contributes to balance in most mammals and to the sense of spatial orientation)
vestibular system: Nystagmus constant, involuntary, cyclical movement of the eyeball. (Saccades)
vestibular system: Vertigo equilibratory apparatus disturbances causing dizziness and lightheadedness
auditory transduction pathway: What first collects sound waves? the auricle (pinna)
auditory transduction pathway: Then what happens to these sound waves? External Auditory Canal directs waves to TM
auditory transduction pathway: The TM then vibrates. What does this cause? displacement of the ossicles
auditory transduction pathway: the ossicles then transmit and amplify vibrations from TM to the what? oval window
auditory transduction pathway: Then the waves reach the what? cochlea
auditory transduction pathway: Fluids in cochlea allow for what? tectorial and basilar membranes to shear
auditory transduction pathway: the waves then reach the Organ of Corti where the hair receptors bend. What does this do? transduce sound waves into action potentials
auditory transduction pathway: waves then reach the round window, which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the inner ear through the oval window. What does this do? It allows fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur.
auditory transduction pathway: __________ displacement stimulates neurons of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (CN VIII) Stereocilia
auditory transduction pathway: Stereocilia mechanosensing organelles of hair cells, which respond to fluid motion for various functions, including hearing and balance
organ of corti: the Cochlear duct(Scala Media) housed in endolymph, contains what? receptors for hearing (sensory hair cells and nerve endings)
organ of corti: Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) transmits sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.
what are the two types of deafness? Sensorineural (Presbycusis) and Conduction
Deafness: sensorineural (presbycusis) Permanent deafness that occurs when hair cells are damaged (ie. Loud concerts)
Deafness: conduction Reversible deafness that involves a physical barrier that obstructs hearing. (ie. Cerumen build-up, middle ear infection, congenital defects)
What are two tests we used to test for deafness? the Rinne and Weber tests
Weber: determines what kind of deafness? sensorineural deafness
Rinne: compares what two kinds of hearing? Bone-Conducting and Air-Conducting hearing
Weber: if the defective ear hears the Weber tuning fork louder, the finding indicates a _________ hearing loss in the defective ear. if the normal ear hears the tuning fork sound better, there is ___________ hearing loss on the other (defective) ear. conductive, sensorineural
A normal or positive Rinne test is when AC > BC sound heard outside the ear (air conduction or AC) is louder than the initial sound heard when the tuning fork end is placed against the skin on top of the mastoid process behind the ear (bone conduction or BC)
Rinne: In __________ hearing loss, bone conduction is better than air or BC > AC, a negative Rinne. conductive
Created by: cmccartney2



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