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Stack #187829

interface for reflexes spinal cord
knee jerk reflex is __ synaptic monosynaptics
withdrawal reflex caues ipsilateral flexion/extension and contralateral flexion/extension ipsilateral flexion, contralateral extension
neroglial cells in CNS microglia(ingest pathogens), oligodendrocyte(myelin), astrocyte(blood brain barrier), ependymal(line ventricles)
AP generated in _ region of neuron axon hillock
difference between leak and voltage gated channels leak channels always remain open, whereas volt gated channel open in response to voltage
conc't of extraceullar Na, K, Cl, Ca high Na, Cl, Ca,, and low K
the number of ions required to bring a __ change is small. potential change
how does secondary active transport work use conc't gradient generated to move molec against their conct gradient.
Ek is -90mV
ENa is 60mV
RMP is -60mV
If K+ didn't carry any charge, the intracellular conct of [K+] compared to the extracellular conct be equal
when does equilibrium potential occur when conc't gradient = electrical gradient
consider a hypothetical cell which only contains K+. Its RMP will be -60mV
consider a hypothetical cell which only contains K+. Increasing permeability of K+ would cause RMP to__ no effect
consider a hypothetical cell which only contains K+ and Na+. Increasing permeability of K+ would cause RMP to__ decrease towards Ek
RMP = -60mV means the potential on the outside of the cell is __ and the inside is __ outside = 0mV, inside = -60mV
difference between RMP and Equilib potential RMP requires active transporter, Equilibrium Pot doesn't
Effect of increasing number of leak channel on equilibrium potential no change
why is RMP closer to Ek than ENa because permeability higher for K+
current flow of ions
what happens to RMP if permeability to K+ increases decrease
what happens to RMP if permeability to Na+ increases incrase
what happens to RMP if [Na+]inside goes up down
equilibrium potential or RMP is at steady state and why RMP, because neither of Na nor K is at equilibrium, also requires active transporters for its maintainence
three types of channels leak, volt gated, ligand gated
interval during which a second AP can't be fired called absolute refractory period
interval during which a second AP is INHIBITED but not impossible called relative refractory period
relative refractory period caused by hyperpolarization
absolute refract period caused by inhibition particle on volt gated Na+ channel
the membrane potential never reaches ENa during depolarization because 1.K channels start to open 2.Na channels start to inactivate
channel arrest hypothesis when no O2 present, membrane becomes non-leaky
AP fired in the middle of a neruron which direction does it travel? both
what allows unidirectional propagation of AP at axon hillock? absolute refractory period.
ways to increase speed of AP inc. Rm, dec. Ra.
inc. diameter cause dec. Ra
inc. myelination causes inc. Rm
lamba is dist over which AP travels befor it decays down to 37% of original value
inc. lambda = inc/dec efficieency inc.
differences between oligodendrocytes, schwann cells oligo - CNS and one cell enwraps many neurons schw - PNS and many cells enwrap 1 neuron
channels in internode no channels
current flowing between nodes is saltatory or electrotonic electrotonic
saltatory conduction AP regenerated only at nodes and travelling electrotonically between nodes
In muscle __ AP generates 1AP. In CNS __ AP generates 1AP. 1, multiple AP
inhibitory transmitter at NM junction NONE
ACh degraded by acetylcholinesterase
sensory neuron when it receives physical stimulus causes grading EPSP, Na or Na and K open
gap junction is 2 connexons.
myasthenia gravis immune system attacks Ach receptor
immune system attacks Ach receptor myasthenia gravis
Botox blocks neuromuscular transmission (No Ach release)
blocks neuromuscular transmission (No Ach release) Botox
muscle heirarchy sarcomere, fibril, fiber(endomysium), fascicle(perimysium), organ(epimysium)
M line contains myosin
A zone contains entire myosin
H zone contains only myosin
I zone contain only actn
six steps of cross bridging cycle 1.Ca+ bdd to troponin, and tropomyosin expose binding site 2.myosin head bdd to actin (Low E state) 3.release ADP, Pi, cause powerstroke 4.ATP binds, myosin, actin dissociate (back to high E state) 5.hydrolysis of ATP 6.Ca2+ removed back to SR
muscles innervated by 1 neuron called motor unit
different types of muscle fibers white (fast), red (slow)
receptor potential stimulus that brings membrane pot to threshold
1 connexon is 6 conexin
AP generated in __ why? axon hillock, because this region contains highest conct of volt gated Na channels
Created by: honghee



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