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Stack #187405

which sulcus divides frontal and parietal lobes central sulcus
brain is made up of cerebellum, cerebrum, brain stem
purpose of having folding of cortex pack as much neuroglial cell as possible
rostral is anterior
caudal is posterior
anterior also called rostral
posterior also called caudal
efferent leave spinal cord via ventral root
afferent enter spinal cord via dorsal root
soma of afferent sensory neuron located in dorsal root ganglion
soma of efferent motor neuron located in ventral horn
afferent and efferent neurons connected in the spinal cord by interneurons
sensory receptor is ussually cation channels
convergence of neuron many neurons feeding into a single neuron
divergence of neuron single neuron branching and feeding into many neurons
postsynaptic density is sites on post synaptic neuron where receptors for neurotransmitters are located
sites on post synaptic neuron where receptors for neurotransmitters are located postsynaptic density
most common excitatory neurotransmitter is gluatmate
ACh binds to what nicotinic receptor
nicotinic receptor function Na+ Ca2+ in, K+ out => EPP (end plate potential) =>depolarization => AP
how many EPSP need to stimulate 1 muscle fiber 1
glutamatergic receptor causes depolarization by letting Na+ in and K+ out
relationship between conductance and permeability high permeability means high conductance
relationship between resistance and conductance high conductance means low resistance
how many AP needed to generate an AP in muscle 1
GABA receptor causes hyperpolarization by letting in Cl-
glycinergic causes hyperpolarization by letting in Cl-
temporal summatoion inputs from same presynaptic neurons
spatial summation inputs from different presynatptic neurons
major excitatory trasmitter in CNS glutamate
glutamate receptors NMDA, AMPA, Kainate
too much glutamate released in CNS could cause brain injury (stroke)
major cortical inhibitory trasmitter GABA
GABA receptors GABA(A), GABA(B)
GABA could cause epilepsy
ACh receptors nicotinic, muscarinic
ACh could cause alzheimer
glycine receptors glycine
glycine could cause spasticity in spinal cord => cramps
major spinal inhibitory transmitter is glycine
excitatory peptides are substance p, TRH
inhibitory peptides are endogenous, opioid
ionotropic receptor binding of transmitter causes opening of the gate
metabotropic binding of transmitter causes indirect opening of the gate via second messenger cascade
GPCR has how many subunits 7
effector ion channel in cAMP induced depolarization is S-type K+ channel, the gate closes in response to getting phosphorylated by PKA
nicotinic metabotropic or ionotropic ionotropic
muscarinic metabotropic or ionotropic metabotropic
for ACh mediated EPSP fast EPSP due to nicotinic channel
for ACh mediated EPSP slow EPSP due to (muscarinic) M-type K+ channel being closed.
nicotine can bind to only nicotinic receptor
muscarine can bind to only muscarinic receptor
antagonist of nicotinic receptor curare
curare antagonist of nicotinic receptor
atropine antagonist of muscarinic receptor
antagonist of muscarinic receptor atropine
AMPA binds to AMPA receptor
NMDA binds to NMDA receptor
antagonist of AMPA receptor CNQX
antagonist of NMDA receptor APV
antagonist of Kainate receptor CNQX
CNQX antagonist of AMPA and kainate receptor
APV antagonist of NMDA receptor
CNQX antagonist of Kainate and AMPA receptor
NMDA can bind glycine, glutamate, NMDA (paradox because here glycine is an excitatory transmitter)
NDMA receptor when activated causes Ca2+ , Na+ in and K+ out => depol
AMPA receptor when activated causes Na+ in, K+ out => depol
Kainate receptor when activated causes Na+ in, K+ out
difference between NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in non-NMDA, Ca2+ not involved.
which glutamate receptor is metabotropic and which is ionotropic all ionotropic, except for glutamate induced G protein
axo-axonal synapse usually mediate presynaptic inhibition
glutamate induced stimulation of G protein activate PLC, PIP2 -> DAG + IP3, IP3 binds to IP3 receptor.
IP3 binding to IP3 receptor causes release of Ca2+ into cytosol
GABA(A) ionotropic or metabotropic ionotropic
GABA(B) ionotropic or metabotropic metabotropic
GABA(A) causes (in axo-aoxonal synapse) open Cl- channels.
GABA(B) causes (in axo-aoxonal synapse) open K+ channels + block volt gated Ca2+ channels
endorphines excitatory or inhibitory inhibitory, block afferent pain fiber by blocking Ca2+ channel or opening K+ channel
analgesia axoaxonal inhibition which minimizes pain
different axons of skin in decreasing diameter Aalpha, Abeta, Adelta, C
different axons of muscles in decreasing diameter Group I, Group II, Group III, Group IV
information from spinal cord must pass through __ in order to get to the cortex thalamus
somatosensory pathway for crude touch, pain or temperature skin -> dorsal horn -> (synapse) -> cross over -> thalamus (2nd synapse) -> to cortex (diffuse projection)
relay nuclei for sensory inputs thalamus
somatosensory pathway for fine touch, proprioception skin -> pons (epsilateral side) -> (synapse) -> cross over -> thalamus -> (2nd synapse) -> to cortex (somatotopic projection)
gracilis fibers from lower body
cuneatus fibers from upper body
definition of diffuse projection and what somatosensory pathway it is found in somatosensory neuron projects onto the cortex in a diffused manner (to non-specific region). found in path for pain or temperature.
definition of somatotopic projection and what somatosensory pathway it is found in somatosensory neuron gets projected to a specific region in the cortex. found in path for fine touch, proprioception
pyramidal pathway is pre-motor neuron taking info from motor cortex to spinal cord
MRI records activity of brain by measuring the distribution and energy states of protons
positron emission tomography (PET) measures neuronal activity in brain via an increased cerebral blood flow due to increased oxygen demand.
hearing words stimulates temporal region
seeing words stimulates occipital region
speaking words stimulates the motor cortex on frontal
generating words stmimulates frontal
in EEG(electroencephalogram), apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons receive inputs from thalamus.
in EEG what is closer to the surface, apical dendrite or axon apical dendrite
excitatory input from thalamus (eg. glutamate) causes EPSP in apical dendrites
how is EEG measured? by measuring change in voltage in extracellulr space in brain, in response to inputs from thalamus. (eg. excitatory input from thalamus => depol at apical dendrites => extracellular becomes negative)
negative EEG means excitatory input from thalamus to pyramidal neuron
alpha rhythm during relaxed state, preparing to go to sleep
beta rhythm during alert
if a person is relaxed then you would see __ in EEG alpha rhythm
a person has tumor so you would see __ in EEG delta wave (delta wave also for sleeping infants)
if a person is alert then you would see __ in EEG beta rhythm
part of limbic system involved in emootion hippocampus
front part of hippocampus called amygdala
Created by: honghee



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