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CSC Ethics

Computer Science Ethics

TermDefinition
Ethics Sometimes known as a moral philosophy, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Deontological Theory (Kant) Is an approach to Ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves.
Utilitarianism (Mills) Is a theory in ethics holding that the moral action is the one that maximizes utility. (Includes: pleasure, economic well being, and lack of suffering.)
Act Utilitarianism (Mills) Is a utilitarian theory of ethics which states taht a person's actions is morally right if and only if it produces at least as much happiness as any other action that the person could perform at that time.
Rule Utilitarianism (Mills) Is a form of utilitarianism that says an action is right as it conforms to a rule that leads to the greatest good, or the "rightness or wrongness of a particular action"
Natural Rights (Locke) Man's natural rights are life, liberty, and property. Those not contingent upon the laws, customs, or beliefs of any particular culture or government. Universal and inalienable.
Negative Rights Is a right not to be subjected to an action of another person or group. Right to do something without having to undo it.
Positive Rights Is a right to be subjected to an action or another person or group. Requires you to undo the action.
Free stuff Someone else has already paid for it or you are paying for it with information other than currency.
Paypal Handling Commercial Payments in a Trusted Way
4th Amendment Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and requires any warrant to be judicially sanctioned and supported by probable cause.
Key Aspects of Privacy Freedom from intrusion (being left alone), Control of information about oneself, and Freedom from surveillance (from being followed, tracked, watched, and eavesdropped upon)
Privacy Risks Intentional, institutional use of personal info, Unauthorized use or release by "insiders", theft of info, inadvertent leakage of info through negligence or carelessness, Our own actions (agreeing to terms of use)
Re-Identification Means identifying the individual from a set of anonymous data
Personal Information any info relating to an individual person
Informed consent Users being aware of what information is collected and how it is used
Invisible Information Gathering Collection of personal information
Secondary use Use of personal info for other than it was intended
Cookies files stored on a visitor's computer
Data mining Compiling data of an individual and creating a profile
Computer Matching combining and comparing information
Computer Profiling analyze data to determine characteristics of people most likely to engage in certain behavior
Opt Out (Informed Consent) Person must request that an Organization cannot use information
Opt In Collector of info may use info only if person explicitly gives permission
Olmstead v US whether the use of wiretapped private telephone conversations obtained by federal agents without judicial approval and subsequently used as evidence, constituted a violation of the defendant's rights provided by the 4th amendment. Neither were violated
Katz v US Nature of "right to privacy" and the legal definition of "search". The court's ruling refined previous interpretations of the unreasonable search and seizure clause of the 4th amendment to count immaterial intrusion with technology as a search. Intrusion
Kyllo v US held that the use of a thermal imaging device from a public vantage point to monitor the radiation of heat from a person's home was a "search" within the meaning of the 4th amendment and required a warrant
Right to be forgotten is the concept that individuals have the civil right to request that personal information be removed from the internet
Privacy Act of 1974 requires that agencies give the public notice of their systems of records by publication in the Federal Register. Prohibits the disclosure of info from a system of records absent the written consent of the subject individual.
E-Government Act of 2002 by establishing a framework of measures that require using Internet based info tech to improve citizen access to gov't info and services, and for other purposes
REAL ID Act of 2005 The law sets forth requirements for state driver's licenses and ID cards to be accepted by federal gov't for "official purposes" as defined by the Secretary of Homeland Security.
Informed consent and Agreement to Use and Terms Methods for protecting privacy used in the business world
Free Market View an economic system in which prices are determined by unrestricted competition between privately owned businesses. Based on Supply and Demand with little or no gov't control.
Consumer Protection View is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers as well as fair trade, competition and accurate info in the marketplace.
1934 Communications Act regulating interstate and foreign commerce in the communication by wire and radio so as to make available, so far as possible, to all the people of US a rapid, efficient, nationwide and worldwide wire and radio communication service
1968 Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act set rules for obtaining wiretap orders in the US
ECPA was an amendment to Title III of the Omnibus, which was primarily designed to prevent unauthorized gov't access to private electronic comm.
USA Patriot Act Its title is a ten letter backronym that stands for "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001"
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act purpose is to enhance the ability of law enforcement agencies to conduct electronic surveillance by requiring that telecommunications carriers and manufacturers of telecomm. have built in surveillance abilities
1st amendment Prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, right to peacefully assemble, petition. Bill of Rights
Telecommunication Act of 1996 is the first major overhaul of telecomm. law. The goal is to let anyone enter any comm. business - to let any comm. business compete in any market against any other
Communications Decency Act of 1996 also known by some legislators as the "Great Cyberporn Panic of 1995" first attempt of congress to regulate porn on the internet
Free Speech Principles We - all human being - must be free and able to express ourselves, and to seek, receive, and impart info and ideas, regardless of frontiers.
Communications Decency Act of 1996 Deemed unconstitutional (1996)
Child Online Protection Act of 1998 deemed unconstitutional (1998)
Children's Internet Protection Act of 2000 (Libraries) requires that K-12 schools and libraries in the US use Internet filters and implement other measures to protect children from harmful online content
Alternatives to Censorship to Protect Children Better parenting, Verification of age, blocking search terms, limiting tv programs, radio stations, putting ratings on everything
Net Neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers and gov't should treat all data on the internet equally, not discriminating or charging differentially by user, content, site, platform, application, etc.
Created by: rayne95