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Stack #186542

internal respiration refers to cellular respiration (ie. ETC)
what is the respiratory quotient (RQ)? ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed
what is the respiratory quotient of carbohydrate 1 (6 O2 consumed, 6 CO2 produced therefore 1:1)
in respiratory system what direction do cilia beat towards pharynx (unidirectional beatings)
affect of breathing in dry air on mucus in respiratory tract? mucus covering the airway get too dense.
which cells in airway produce H2O to hydrate mucus? all epithelial cells in airway
affect of dense mucus on cilia dense mucus - cilia don't beat at all
affect of dilute mucus on cilia cilia beat too fast
role of cilia in airway remove dust particles out of the airway
major glands in respiratory system + their function goblet cell - secrete viscous mucous serous cell - secrete serin which dilutes mucus
when sick body produces excess mucous because increased number of goblet cell
which nerves signal (indirectly) mucus glands (goblet, serous, etc) to secrete mucus cholinergic afferent nerve in intercellular space sends signal to brain which receives the information and stimulates secretions via cholinergic efferent nerve.
contraction of __ causes an ejection of mucus in ducts myoepithelial cells
symptom of cystic fibrosis thick, dehydrated mucous, due to defected Cl- channels.
cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) pumps __ in which directions? Cl- to apical surface, Na+ to inside of epithelial cell.
airway epithelial cells held together by tight junctions
in airway epithelial cells __ surface is more negative than ___ surface. this is called apical, basal. depolarized
how is apical airway epithelial surface hydrated/dehydrated? hydrated by opening up Cl- channels dehydrated by opening up Na+ channels
how is Cl- in airway epithelial cell pumped out passively? 1.NA/K pump creates high [Na+] in basal surface 2.pumped Na+ from basal surface diffuse into the cell, the energy is harnessed to pump K+ and Cl- into the cell.
body's response to compensate for breathing in humid air close Cl- channel and open Na+ channel
thick mucus in airway a symptom of cystic fibrosis
defensin, function antimicrobial peptide, kill bacteria by forming channels in membrane.
two characteristics of defensin 1.amphiphilic(one side more hydrophilic), cationic(+v charged) 2.stored, delivered on stimulation (eg. presence of bacteria)
results from infecting healthy and cystic fibrotic cell with bacteria. Normal cell:bacteria killed(defensin was active) CF cell:bacteria survives(Defensin was inactive)
function of alveolar 1 cells form continuous alveolar walls
function of alveolar 2 cells produce surfactant, replace damaged type 1 cells
function of alveolar macrophage ingest pathogens
surfactant increase or decrease lung compliance increase
surfactant level increase when taking deep breaths
surfactant level decreases when taking small breaths
in Laplace equation P represents pressure directed inward towards alveola
high P in Laplace equation represents low lung compliance
alveoloar surface tension caused by attractive forces between water molecules lining alveoli
laplace formula P= 2gamma/radius
surfactant affects which variable in laplace equation lowers gamma(surface tension)
how do small alveoli collapse into large alveoli small alveoli has higher P (because of smaller radius) hence air will flow to bigger alveoli because it has a higher lung compliance
how should distribution of surfactant be in alveoli of different sizes? smaller alveoli -> more surfactant larger alveoli -> less surfactant so that you don't get alveoli collapsing
2 functions of surfactin 1.lower surface tention 2.alter surface tension depending on radii of alveoli
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) immature type 2 alveolar cells in infants
nitrogen narcosis high ambient pressure under water causing more N2 to be dissolved in the tissue. (high pN2) => reduce excitability of neurons
what happens during rapid ascend in water? ambient pressure decreases fast causing N2 dissolved in blood and tissue to leave and thereby forming bubbles
the diffusion coefficient of CO2 is __ than O2 and the result is higher, rapid diffusion for a given pressure gradient
diffusion of gases depends on what variables? area through which the diffusion occurs(A), diffusion coefficient(D), pressure difference(P1-P2), distance through which the gas must travel(L)
affect of fibrosis fibrotic tissue accumulates in alveoli and thickens it ie. increases the L in Fick's equation
affect of pulmonary adema fluid accumulation in alveoli causing thickened membrane ie. increase the L Fick's equation
J in fick's law is diffusion rate
muscles involved in inspiration scalenes, externernal intercostals, diaphragm
muscles involved in forced expiration abdominal muscles, internal intercostal
for lung mechanics purposes, all pressures compared to ___ pressure which is equal to Patm = 0
Palv is negative or positive during inspiration negative
Palv negative means it is small than Patm
Ppl is pressure in pleural cavity
Ptr is pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the lungs
static recoil pressure of lung called Ptr
Palv is negative or positive during expiration positive
which pressure holds the lung expanded Ptr
during inspiration 1.volume of pleural cavity inc. which decreases Ppl 2.dec. Ppl inc. Ptr expands lung 4.volume of alv inc. which dec. Palv. 5.air rushes in
Palv when all muscles relaxed 0 (= 760 mmHg)
Pneumothrorax punch hole thorugh parietal pleura
when happens if you punch a hole through parietal pleura Ppl = 0, Palv = 0 => Ptr = 0. lung collapse
Ppl is usually lower than Patm. ie Ppl<0
pulmonary fibrosis is proliferation of connective tissue making the lungs less compliant
relation between compliance and stiffness inc. compliance => dec. stiffness
a condition in which the lungs become stiff is called pulmonary fibrosis
in patients with pulmonary fibrosis you would expect the total lung capacity to be (at a specific Ptr) smaller or bigger smaller, because lungs cannot fully expand
in patients with emphysema you would expect the total lung capacity to be (at a specific Ptr) smaller or bigger bigger
lung compliance depends on lung volume wrt Ptr
pulmonary ventilation(PV) amount of air moved out of the lungs each minute
pulmonary ventilation(PV) calculated by freq*depth of breathing
amount of air moved out of the lungs each minute called pulmonary ventilation (PV)
anatomical dead space is space where no air exchange occurs (ie. conducting portion of respiratory system)
alveolar ventilation (AV) volume of air EXCHANGED (ie not at anatomical dead space) between the atmosphere and alveoli per minute
volume of air exchanged between the atmosphere and alveoli called alveolar ventilation (AV)
AV is calculated by PV-DSV (deadspace ventilation)
space where no air exchange occurs (ie. conducting portion of respiratory system) called anatomical dead space
alveolar dead space is alveoli with no blood supply for gas exchange
physiological dead space is sum of all dead spaces (anatomical + alveolar)
alveoli with no blood supply for gas exchange is alaveolar dead space
dead space ventilation(DSV) is calculated dead space volume * freq
hypoventilation means low alveolar ventilation
high __ ventilation means hyperventilation alveolar ventilation
tidal volume is air exchange when resting
residual volume is volume in lung that cannot be removed. ie. volume of air remaining after force exhalation
expiratory reserve is air that can be exhaled forcefully
inspiratory reserve is air that can be inhaled forcefully
volume of air that can be exhaled forcefully is expiratory reserve
volume of air that can be inhaled forcefully is inspiratory reserve
how is volume of air breathed in and out of lungs measured? using spirometer
what is spirometer measures volume of air breathed in and out of lungs
Inspiratory capacity is inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume
inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume inspiratory capacity
functional residual capacity is expiratory reserve volume + residual volume
vital capacity is inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume
expiratory reserve volume + residual volume functional residual capacity
inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume vital capacity
term capacity when describing lung volume is used when a volume can be broken down into smaller volumes
a person takes a maximal inspiration. maximum amount of air that this person can expire is vital capacity = inspiratory reserve + tidal + expiratory reserve
changing from standing to supine position changes decreases functional residual capacity
total lung volume is calculated (using what formula) C1V1 = (V1+Vlung)C2
forced expiratory volume(FEV1) is maximum volume of air expired in the first second of expiration (after max inspiration)
if airway is obstructed how would it affect the forced expiratory volume? decrease FEV1 to vital capacity ratio
agonists for muscarinic receptors ACh
ACh binds to what receptor muscarinic
muscarinic receptor results in __ in airway brochoconstriction
NE binds to what receptor alpha-adrenoceptor
E binds to what receptor beta-adrenoceptor
agonists for alpha and beta adrenoceptor NE and E
alpha adrenoceptor results in __ in airway bronchoconstriction
beta adrenoceptor results in __ in airway bronchodilation
___ receptor results in bronchoconstriction muscarinic, alpha adrenoceptor
___ receptor result sin bronchodilation beta adrenoceptor
therapy for asthma 1.anti-inflammatory drugs(glucocorticoid) 2.bronchodilator drug(binds to beta-ad. receptor) - short term treatment
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) narrowing airway due to excess mucous secretion
two types of COPD (Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease) 1.Chronic bronchitis, 2.Emphysema
Chronic bronchitis symptom excessive mucus production. mucus get trapped
Emphysema symptom collapsing smaller airways, breakdown of alveoli.
Emphysema caused by overexpression of digestive enzyme (trypsin) and / or inability to produce enough alpha1-antitrypsin
overexpression of digestive enzyme (trypsin) and / or inability to produce enough alpha1-antitrypsin results in Emphysema, or destruction of lung tissue
cure for emphysema alpha-antitrypsin to remove excess trypsin
pulmonary resistance higher or lower than systemic resistance much lower
pO2 and pCO2 in systemic arteries pO2 = 100, pCO2 = 40
how does CO2 diffuse across membrane when the pressure difference between capillary and cell is only ~6 CO2 has a very high diffusion coefficient thus 6 is enough for diffusion from tissue to blood
CO2 at lung moves which direction? out of blood into alveoli
there is no blood flow in ___ region of lung due to upper, Alveolar pressure higher than pulmonary artery pressure. (results in negative Ptr)
driving pressure for blood in middle region of lung Pa-Palv
driving pressure for blood in lowest region of lung Pa-Pv
PO2 in pulmonary vein is about 5mmHg less than PO2 in alveoli. Why is this the case the uppermost lung has Palv = Pa therefore no gas exchange occurs there (dead space)
Ventilation-perfusion balance for diverting blood away from the poorly ventilated alveoli to achieve maximum efficiency of gas exchange
ion channels involved in ventilation perfusion balance O2 sensing K+ channel, Volt dependent Ca2+ channel
How is blood diverted away from area of no gas ventilation? (what channels are involved) 1.O2 sensing K+ channel close causes depolarization 2.Volt dependent Ca2+ channel open, Ca2+ rush into cell 3.cause smooth muscle contraction
In normoxia what channel remains open/closed? K+ open, Ca2+ closed => no smooth muscle contraction
most of CO2 in body is carried as bicarbonate (HCO3-)
What molec in Hb does O2 bind to Fe2+
affect of CO on sigmoidal Hb curve shifts the curve to left
affect of H+ on sigmoidal Hb curve shifts the curve to right
affect of 23DPG on sigmoidal Hb curve shifts the curve to right
affect of pCO2 on sigmoidal Hb curve shifts the curve to right
how is CO2 converted to bicarbonate? where does this occur CO2 + H2O ->(carbonic anhydrase) H2CO3 -> HCO3- + H+, occurs in rbc
H+ produced by converting CO2 to bicarbonate is neutralized by H+ + Hb -> HbH
anion exchanger move what ions move HCO3- and Cl- in opposite directions
different hypoxia hypoxic hypoxia, circulatory hypoxia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia
hypoxis hypoxia inadequate Hb saturation with O2. causes:high altitude, low ventilation
circulatory hypoxia too little blood delivered to tissue causes:cardiac arrest, Emboli(blod blood flow to specific areas)
anemic hypoxia reduced O2 carrying capacity of blood causes:low Hb conct, CO poisioning
Histotoxic hypoxia cells cannot utilize O2 (eg. CN- poisioning)
condition where cell cannot utilize O2 for cellular respiration called Histotoxic hypoxia
condition in which blood has a reduced O2 carrying capacity called Anemic Hypoxia
condition in which too little blood is delivered to tissues called circulatory hypoxia
condition in which blood has a low arterial pO2 is called hypoxic hypoxia
different CO2 disorders hypercapnia, hypocapnia
hypercapnia is excess cO2 in arterial blood cause:hypoventilation
hypocapnia is below normal arterial pCO2 (affect pH) cause:hyperventilation
H-H eqn for pH can be simplified to pH = [HCO3-]/pCO2
respiratory acidosis increased H+ due to CO2 retention (hypoventilation)
opposite of acidosis alkalosis
metabolic acidosis cause and compensation cause:loss of bicarbonate(results in accumulation of acid in blood) comp:remove CO2, excrete H+ in kidney
loss of bicarbonate results in metabolic acidosis
respiratory acidosis cause and compensation cause:hypoventilation(increased pCO2) comp:kidney makes more bicarbonate
hypoventilation results in respiratory acidosis
metabolic alkalosis cause and compensation cause:accumulation of bicarbonate(loss of acid) comp:less CO2 blown off, kidney excrete excess bicarbonate
accumulation of bicarbonate results in metabolic alkalosis
respiratory alkalosis cause and compensation cause:hyperventilation comp:kidney excretes more bicarbonate
what part of brain contains respiratory center medulla
the diaphragm receives respiratory signal from medulla via __ nerve phrenic
dorsal respiratory group (DRG) controls autonomic inspiratory nerve
ventral respiratory group (VRG) controls autonomic expiratory nerve
what part of medulla controls autonomic inspiratory nerve dorsal respiratory group
what part of medulla controls autonomic expiratory nerve ventral respiratory group
different chemoreceptors central, peripheral
central chemoreceptor medulla, respond to [H+]
effect of PO2 on central chemoreceptor no effect
how does H+ cross the blood brain barrier to activate central chemoreceptor ? CO2 crosses the barrier, and is converted to bicarbonate and H+ in brain
effect of CO2 on central chemoreceptor too much CO2 will inhibit respiratory neuron, indirect activation via conversion to bicarb + h+
peripheral chemoreceptor in aorta, carotid artery
effect of O2 on peripheral chemoreceptor decrease in O2 activates peripheral chemoreceptor
effect of CO2 on peripheral chemoreceptor indirect activation via conversion to bicarbonate and H+
effect of H+ on peripheral chemoreceptor activate peripheral chemoreceptor
obstructive lung disease, example and symptom emphysema, small expiratory reserve volume, big reserve volume.
restrictive lung disease, example and symptom pulmonary fibrosis, small inspiratory reserve voluume, because of stiff alveoli
Created by: honghee



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