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Nat 210 Module 7+

Endocrine System

TermDefinition or Function
Pineal Gland The source of melatonin, a hormone derived from tryptophan that regulates circadian rhythm (sleep cycle).
Hypothalamus Produces hormones that control body temperature, hunger, mood release of hormones from many glands (especially the pituitary gland), sex drive, sleep, thirst and heart rate.
Pituitary Gland Takes messages from the brain (via the hypothalamus) and uses these messages to produce hormones that affect many parts of the body, including stimulating all the other hormone-producing glands to produce their own hormones.
Parathyroids The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps your body keep the right balance of calcium and phosphorous.
Thyroid The thyroid secretes several hormones, collectively called thyroid hormones. The main hormone is thyroxine, also called T4. Thyroid hormones act throughout the body, influencing metabolism, growth and development, and body temperature.
Thymus Produces thymosin which stimulates the development of disease-fighting T cells which help the body protect itself against autoimmunity.Therefore, the thymus plays a vital role in the lymphatic system (your body’s defense network) and endocrine system.
Adrenals Produces the hormones responsible for responding to stress; using carbohydrates, fats and proteins; and regulating the salt and water balance in the body. Also produces cortisol which helps regulate your metabolism, sugar levels, and blood pressure.
Pancretic islets Produces hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Also secretes pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that pass to the small intestine which help in the further breakdown of the carbohydrates, protein, and fat in the chyme.
Ovaries (female) Secrete the sex hormones that stimulate the development of secondary sexual characteristics including breasts
Testes (Male) Secrete the sex hormones that stimulate the development of secondary sexual characteristics including the beard
Hormones Chemical messengers secreted directly into the blood, which carries them to organs and tissues of the body to exert their functions.
Created by: tnalls