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OAC Life Science 3

OAC 2009-2010 Life Science

QuestionAnswer
What general type of animal is a petrel? Bird
What general type of animal is a bittern? Bird
What general type of animal is a goby? Fish
In 1831, Charles Darwin stepped aboard this ship, where he would observe several species of finches and tortoises and formulate his theories of evolution and natural selection. Name this ship. (HMS) Beagle
From 1856-1863, this Austrian monk cultivated and studied pea plants to formulate his laws of genetics. Name this monk. (Gregor) Mendel
In 1867, this English surgeon sprayed his operating room with carbolic acid, and decreased deaths from post-surgery infection by 15%. His name lives on today as part of a brand name oral antiseptic. Name him. (Joseph) Lister
People who suffer from heliophobia (hee-leo-PHOBIA) have a fear of what celestial body? Sun
People who suffer from pyrophobia (“pie-row-PHOBIA”) have a fear of what substance? Fire
People who suffer from hippophobia have a fear of what animal? Horse(s)
The kidneys, bladder and urethra belong to what organ system of the human body? Excretory
The mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines and liver belong to what organ system of the human body? Digestive
The hair, nails and skin belong to what organ system of the human body? Integumentary
What name is given to the colored portion of the human eye? Iris
What name is given to the dark opening in the center of the iris? Pupil
What name is given to the clear covering of the eye through which light enters? Cornea
What name is given to a group of organisms of one type that live within the same area? Population
What name is given to populations that live together within a defined area? Community
What name is given to the organizational level which is defined as the part of Earth that contains all ecosystems? Biosphere
This biome is characterized by a cover of grasses and flora is spotty, with isolated trees and shrubs. Fires are frequent and dominant animals include lions, elephants, giraffes and ostriches. Identify this biome, which covers a large portion of Kenya. Savannah
This biome is characterized by extremely short summers and long, cold winters, which cause a freeze-thaw cycle that permanently inhibits the growth of large plants. Identify this biome where the ground is continuously covered in permafrost. Tundra
This biome is characterized by the rapid decomposition and reuptake of dead organic matter. The leafy tops of tall trees form a dense layer of flora called the canopy, while the secondary layer is called the understory. Identify this biome. (Tropical) Rainforest
This term in genetics is described as the different forms of a single gene. It is generally represented using either a capital letter or a lowercase of the same letter. Allele
This term in genetics is used to describe any individual which has two identical alleles for the same trait, either both dominant or both recessive. Homozygous
This term in genetics is defined as the physical characteristics of an organism, and sounds similar to a term describing the genetic characteristics. Phenotype
What is the more-commonly given name for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, which causes motor neuron deterioration and death? It was named for its most-prominent victim at the time, a New York Yankees player. Lou Gehrig’s Disease
From the Greek for “scales on a fish,” what is the more-commonly given medical name for Hansen’s Disease, in which body parts turn scaly and become permanently disfigured or useless if left untreated? Leprosy
What is the more-commonly given name for the disease once called chronic infantile paralysis? Occurring in several different types, this was originally believed to be the disease that notably affected President Franklin Roosevelt. Polio
What symbiotic relationship is defined as one in which both species benefit from the relationship? Mutualism
What symbiotic relationship is defined as one in which one member of the relationship benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed? Commensalism
What symbiotic relationship is defined as one in which one organism lives on or inside the other and harms it? Parasitism
What term is used to describe the movement of individuals into an area, causing an increase in population? Immigration
What term is used to describe the movement of individuals out of an area, causing a decrease in population? Emigration
What two-word term is used to describe the largest population a given environment can support? Carrying Capacity
In 1665, what scientist first published his book Micrographia, which contained his drawings of sections of cork, as seen through a primitive microscope? (Robert) Hooke
Shortly thereafter, in 1674, what Dutch tradesman used his knowledge of heating glass to create microscope lenses, and is credited with being the first person to observe bacteria? (Anton van) Leeuwenhoek
Some 150 years later, what German scientist discussed the role of the nucleus in cell division, in addition to concluding that all plants and their parts are composed of cells? (Matthias) Schleiden
With a name meaning “cell eating,” what name is given to the process by which extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole? Phagocytosis
With a name meaning “cell drinking,” what name is given to the process by which small amounts of liquid are engulfed by a cell, which then pinches off to form pockets that become vacuoles? Pinocytosis
Both phagocytosis and pinocytosis are examples of this process, which is defined as the process of taking any material into the cell by means of infolding, or pockets within the cell membrane. Endocytosis
In genetics, this term is used to describe a situation in which neither allele is dominant or recessive. An example would be crossing red plants and white plants and forming pink offspring. Give the two-word name of this term. Incomplete Dominance
In genetics, this term is used to describe when both alleles contribute to the phenotype. An example would be crossing black and white plants and forming offspring which have black and white specks, but not a solid gray color. Name this term. Co-Dominance
In genetics, what term is used to describe traits which are controlled by two or more genes? Polygenic
What name is given to a picture used by biologists and geneticists which shows the 23 pairs of human chromosomes arranged in increasing order by their number? Karyotype
What name is given to the remaining 44 chromosomes after the two sex chromosomes have been removed? Autosomes or Autosomal Chromosomes
What name is given to a chart which shows the relationships within a family? They are extremely helpful to geneticists when tracking an interesting human trait or disease and one of the largest tracked hemophilia through the British royal family. Pedigree
Given the level of taxonomic classification, you are to identify the classification for a common house cat. Phylum. Chordata
Given the level of taxonomic classification, you are to identify the classification for a common house cat. Class. Mammalia
Given the level of taxonomic classification, you are to identify the classification for a common house cat. Order. Carnivora
Given the clinical name of a “phobia,” identify what is being feared. Heliophobia. Sun or Sunlight
Given the clinical name of a “phobia,” identify what is being feared. Necrophobia. Death or Dead People
Given the clinical name of a “phobia,” identify what is being feared. Tetraphobia. (Fear of the Number) 4
Given a fear, identify the clinical name usually attributed to it. Fear of confined spaces. Claustrophobia
Given a fear, identify the clinical name usually attributed to it. Fear of fire. Pyrophobia
Given a fear, identify the clinical name usually attributed to it. Fear of Darkness or Night. Nyctophobia
What is the anatomical name given to the human kneecap? Patella
What is the anatomical name given to the human lower jaw bone? Mandible
What is the anatomical name given to the bone of the middle ear, commonly called the “hammer?” Malleus
What name is given to a symbiotic relationship among organisms in which one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed? Commensalism
What name is given to a symbiotic relationship among organisms in which one organism benefits and the other IS harmed? Parasitism or Parasitic
What name is given to a symbiotic relationship among organisms in which both organisms receive a benefit in fitness? Mutualism or Mutualistic
The extinct flightless bird, the Dodo, was native to what continent? Africa
The extinct bird, the passenger pigeon, was native to what continent? North America
What is one of the two continents to which the extinct bird, the Great Auk, was native? Europe or North America
What specific part of the brain is responsible for the release of the hormone dopamine? Hypothalamus
What specific part of the brain is responsible for the release of the hormone vasopressing, also known as anti-diuretic hormone? Hypothalamus
The neurotransmitter Acetylcholine is released by this nerve, which extends from the brainstem as the 10th cranial nerve down into the neck and eventually the abdomen area. Name this nerve. Vagus
What branch of biology studies the abundance of and interactions between organisms and their environments? Further subdivisions of this branch include political, behavioral and population? Ecology
What branch of biology studies the biochemical, mechanical and other functions of living organisms? Thinkers as early as Aristotle attempted to study this branch by noting the differences between structure and function. Physiology
What branch of biology studies the molecular architecture and shape of biologically-important molecules, especially nucleic acids and proteins? Structural (Biology)
Given an “ology,” identify what is studied in that area. Ornithology. Birds
Given an “ology,” identify what is studied in that area. Herpetology. Reptiles
Given an “ology,” identify what is studied in that area. Rhinology. Nose (and its diseases)
Given their nationality, year and citation, identify the Nobel Prize winner in Medicine or Physiology. Russian 1904-"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed." (Ivan) Pavlov
Given their nationality, year and citation, identify the Nobel Prize winner in Medicine or Physiology. German, 1905 - "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis." (Robert) Koch
Given their nationality, year and citation, identify the Nobel Prize winner in Medicine or Physiology. Austrian, 1930 – “for his discovery of human blood groups.” (Karl) Landsteiner
Russian Blue is a variety of what common household pet? Cat
Basenji is a variety of what common household pet? Dog
Albacore is a variety of what animal? Fish
What is the name of the hormone abbreviated FSH whose function is to stimulate the maturation of germ cells in both males and females? Follicle-Stimulating (Hormone)
What is the name of the hormone abbreviated TSH whose function is to stimulate the release of both thyroxine and triiodothyronine in both males and females? Thyroid-Stimulating (Hormone)
What is the name of the hormone abbreviated LH whose function is to trigger ovulation in women and the production of testosterone in men? Luteinizing (Hormone)
What is the more common name of the disease once known as “Hansen’s Disease?” Leprosy
What is the more common name of the disease once known as “Consumption?” Tuberculosis
What is the more common name of the disease clinically known as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, but usually credited to its most-famous victim? Lou Gehrig’s (Disease)
The chromatin threads begin to condense and appear as a tangled mass of threads within the nucleus. The individual chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate. Finally, the nuclear envelope breaks down. Identify this stage of mitosis. Prophase
The chromosomes elongate and return to a resting condition in which only chromatin threads are visible. A nuclear membrane forms around each new daughter nucleus. Shortly after, cytokinesis occurs. Identify this stage of mitosis. Telophase
The spindle fibers contract, causing the separated chromatids (or daughter chromosomes) to migrate to opposite poles of the cell, appearing in a “V” shape, with the centromere at the apex pointing towards the pole. Identify this stage of mitosis. Anaphase
What name is given to those ribs of the human body that are not connected to the sternum, but instead are connected to the cartilage of the rib above them? False (ribs)
What name is given to those ribs of the human body that are connected neither to the sternum nor to the ribs above them? Floating (ribs)
What eleven-letter adjective, beginning with the letter “I”, is given to the spaces found between the ribs, where arteries, veins, muscles, and nerves are located? Intercostal
In what organ of the human body is glycogen stored and bile produced? Liver
In what organ of the human body is insulin produced within the Islets of Langerhans, and where digestive enzymes are made that are passed to the small intestine? Pancreas
In what pair of organs of the human body is urine produced from waste collected from the rest of the body? Kidneys
Since cellulose resists digestion, many animals such as cows have stomachs with multiple chambers, where bacteria aid in digestion. What name is given to these mammals? Ruminant(s)
In birds, since no teeth are present, a two-chambered stomach is used for digestion. One of these chambers contains pebbles ingested by the bird to help break down and churn food. What is the name given to this chamber? Gizzard
Many herbivores such as rabbits and horses digest cellulose in a blind pouch at the beginning of the small intestine. What is the name given to this pouch? Cecum
These hormones function in the promotion of stem elongation and growth; formation of adventitious roots; promotion of cell division; inhibition of leaf abscission; induction of ethylene production and promotion of lateral bud dormancy. Name these hormones Auxin(s)
These hormones function in the stimulation of cell division, but only in the presence of auxin. They support the promotion of chloroplast development, delay of leaf aging and promotion of bud formation. They are found in immature fruits. Name them. Cytokinin(s)
These hormones function in the promotion of stem elongation; stimulation of enzyme production in germinating seeds. They are found in the roots and shoot tips, young leaves and seeds. Gibberellin(s)
Given a vitamin, identify the alternate name assigned to it. Vitamin B2. Riboflavin
Given a vitamin, identify the alternate name assigned to it. Vitamin B3. Niacin
Given a vitamin, identify the alternate name assigned to it. Vitamin D. Calciferol
Identify the scientist who discovered or invented the following. Artificial Heart. (Robert) Jarvik
Identify the scientist who discovered or invented the following. Penicillin. (Alexander) Fleming
Identify the scientist who discovered or invented the following. Smallpox vaccine. (Edward) Jenner
In physiology, the adjective renal refers to what organ? Kidney
In physiology, the adjective cerebral refers to what organ? Brain
In physiology, the prefix –osteo refers to what specific substance? Bone or Bones
In what organ of the human body could one find the fovea centralis? Eye
In what organ of the human body could one find the macula? Eye
In what organ of the human body could one find the malleus? Ear
What insect served as the vector or carrier for bubonic plague? Flea
What insect served as the vector or carrier for malaria? (Anopheles) Mosquito
What disease is known to be caused by several genera of the Tsetse fly? (African) Sleeping Sickness
The study of what animals is known as entomology? Insects
The study of what animals is known as ornithology? Birds
The study of what animals is known as hippology? Horses
One of the first vaccines ever created was developed by Edward Jenner in the 18th century, which prevented what disease? Smallpox
Louis Pasteur, a leading 19th century scientist, is known for developing a vaccine against what disease? Rabies
The first Nobel Prize winner in physiology, Emil von Behring, was awarded the prize for his work fighting what disease, the “D” in the DPT vaccine? Diphtheria
In what organ of the human body is bile produced? Liver
In what organ of the human body is bile stored? Gall Bladder
After eating, bile is released into what first portion of the human small intestine? Duodenum
Myrmecology is the study of what insects that form colonies? Ants
Apiology is the study of what insects which form living communities? Bees
Pathology is the study of what aspect of life? Disease or Diseases
In the taxonomic classification scheme, what division comes between kingdom and class? Examples include Chordates. Phylum
In the taxonomic classification scheme, what division comes right after class? Examples include mammals and birds. Order
The modern taxonomic classification scheme was developed by what 18th century Swedish biologist? (Carl) Linnaeus
The duck-billed platypus and the echidna are both classified as what kind of animals, a class of vertebrate animals named for the glands used to produce milk? Mammals
The duck-billed platypus and the echidna are the only mammals to do this with their young. What is this feature, unlike other mammals, which produce their young by live birth? Lay eggs
This is the name of the order to which the duck-billed platypus and the echidna belong. Its name comes from Greek meaning “single hole.” Give this name. Monotreme
In this model, each daughter DNA strand contains newly synthesized DNA and the parental DNA strands stay together. Name this model. Conservative
In this model, the parental strands cleave during replication and the daughter strands contain segments of both parental and newly synthesized DNA. Name this model. Dispersive
In this model, each replicated DNA molecule consists of one “old” and one “new” strand. This model was proposed by Watson and Crick, and it is accepted today as the correct model. Name this model. Semiconservative
What part of the nervous system, a part of the brain, is protected by the front and top of the cranium? It is the part of the brain responsible for thinking. Cerebrum
What part of the nervous system is protected by the backbone or vertebrae? It is responsible for motion, and having it damaged can lead to paralysis. Spinal Cord
As part of the nervous system, what is the name of the nerve which transmits the sense of smell to the brain? Olfactory
The prefix “phyto” refers to organisms of which of the five kingdoms? Plants
The prefix “zo” refers to organisms of which of the five kingdoms? Animals
The suffix “mycota” refers to organisms of which of the five kingdoms? Fungi
What pair of organs comprises the largest portion of the respiratory system? Lungs
What is the name of the tube that connects the lungs to the upper respiratory tract? Trachea or windpipe
What is the name of the tiny air sacs where blood cells exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen? Alveoli
Insulin and glucagon are hormones which regulate the levels of what nutrient in the body? Sugar (also accept glucose)
If the human body cannot produce insulin, then what disease does one have? Diabetes
The Islets of Langerhans are the specific regions in what organ of the digestive system that produces insulin for the body? Pancreas
What is the term in biology for an animal which primarily eats plants? Herbivore
What is the term in biology for an animal which primarily eats other animals? Carnivore
What is the term in biology for an animal which eats both plants and animals? Omnivore
What blood type is nicknamed the “universal donor” since blood from a person with this blood type can give their blood to anyone? O
What blood type is nicknamed the “universal receiver” since a person with this blood type can receive blood from anyone? AB
What important biological process has reactions that are known as light reactions and dark reactions? Photosynthesis
What important biological process takes the products of photosynthesis and converts it into energy for the organism? Respiration
What important molecule, with a three-letter acronym, is the energy carrier involved in both photosynthesis and respiration? ATP
What is the term for altering the structure of a DNA molecule by substituting genes from other DNA molecules? (Genetic) Engineering
What is the term for a DNA molecule that forms from the joining of two different DNA molecules? Recombinant
What is the term for the technique of the introduction of genes into a plasmid? (DNA) Splicing
In the United Kingdom and Europe, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the human equivalent of what bovine disease? Mad Cow
What viral disease with characteristic fever, chills and occasionally life-threatening encephalitis is spread by birds and mosquitoes? West Nile
What is the name of the disease, discovered in 1977, with symptoms of high fever, and severe bleeding through the nose and eyes, and in the lungs and stomach? Death may result within ten days. Epidemics have occurred in African countries. Ebola
What is the general term for the female part of the flower? Pistil or Carpel
The pistil contains three parts. What is the name for the swollen base of the pistil? Ovary or Ovule
What is the name for the slender middle part of the pistil? Style
What term refers to a trait that is expressed, which is usually symbolized by a capital letter? Dominant
What is the term for a trait which is not normally expressed because of the dominant gene, and is usually symbolized by a lower-case letter? Recessive
What principle states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population remain constant; that is, they are in equilibrium from generation to generation unless specific disturbing influences are introduced? Hardy-Weinberg
This muscle is located in the back part of the lower leg. It runs from just below the knee to the heel and is involved in standing and walking. Name this leg muscle that starts with the letter S. Soleus
This muscle is located in the back part of the lower leg. It runs from just above the knee to the heel and is involved in standing, walking, running, and jumping. Name this muscle, starting with the letter G, which with the soleus forms the calf muscle. Gastrocnemius
This muscle is a long thin muscle that runs down the length of the thigh. Its upper portion forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle. Name this leg muscle that is the longest muscle in the body. Sartorius
Give the name of the nucleotide that most commonly pairs the one given to you in a strand of DNA. Adenine. Thymine
Give the name of the nucleotide that most commonly pairs the one given to you in a strand of DNA. Cytosine. Guanine
According to the American Heritage New Dictionary, what is the name of a group of three bases on the DNA molecule? Each one of these determines the identity of one amino acid in proteins made by the cell. Codon
What order of insects contains ants, bees, and wasps? Hymenoptera
What order of insects contains moths, butterflies, and skippers? Lepidoptera
What order of insects contains grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids? Orthoptera
It is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in the CNS and the gastrointestinal tract. Its role is important in the modulation of anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite, and metabolism. Name this neurotransmitter. Serotonin
It is in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. It's the only neurotransmitter in the somatic nervous system. It functions as a modulator and tends to cause excitations in the central nervous system. Name this neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine
It is a naturally occurring hormone whose levels vary in a daily cycle. Name this neurotransmitter that plays a role in the regulation of the circadian rhythms of several biological functions. Melatonin
Given a biological prefix, give its meaning. Pseudo- False or Fake or Not Real
Given a biological prefix, give its meaning. Phago- Eating
Given a biological prefix, give its meaning. Derm- Skin
This geologic time period extended from 488.3 million years ago to 443.7 million years ago. Name this period that started and ended with a major extinction and is named after a Welsh tribe. Ordovician
This geologic time period extended from 443.7 million years ago to 416 million years ago. Name this period which has its base set at a major extinction event when sixty percent of the marine species were wiped out. Silurian
Both the Ordovician and the Silurian periods are found in what geologic era, which was followed by the Mesozoic Era? Paleozoic (Era)
Name the Russian man who won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1904 in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion. (Ivan) Pavlov
Name the American woman who won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1983 in recognition of her discovery of mobile genetic elements. (Barbara) McClintock
Name the German man who won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1905 for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis. (Robert) Koch
What type of mutation is a point mutation in a DNA sequence that results in a premature stop codon? Nonsense
What type of mutation does not result in a change to the amino acid sequence of a protein? Silent
What type of mutation is a type of point mutation where a single nucleotide is changed to cause substitution of a different amino acid? Missense or Nonsynonymous Mutation
The melanosome is a single membrane compartment that appears in animals that serves to store melanin, which is commonly called what? (Skin) pigment
The glyoxysome is a cell component with a single membrane compartment that appears in plants that serves to convert fat into what nutrient? Sugar
The acrosome is a cell component with a single membrane compartment that appears in many animals that serves to help spermatozoa fuse with what other reproductive cell? Ovum or egg
Erythrocytes are the scientific name for what kind of cells? Red blood (cells)
Leukocytes are the scientific name for what kind of cells? White blood (cells)
What is the name for the cells within blood which are responsible for clotting? Platelets
What scientist accidentally discovered penicillin? (Alexander) Fleming
What scientist accidentally discovered a process for purifying and removing bacteria from milk and other products, a process now named for him? (Louis) Pasteur
Louis Pasteur also created a vaccine against what viral disease that is transmitted by the bite of animals that have the disease? Rabies
What is the only mammal that is capable of flying? Bat
What is the term for the one-celled organisms that come in rod, spherical, and spiral shapes that can cause tuberculosis and pneumonia? Bacteria
What is the name for the type of crustacean that adhere themselves to rocks, animals, and the hulls of ships? Barnacle
What is the name of the endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys which are responsible for producing the namesake “fight or flight” hormone? Adrenal (glands)
What is the name of the endocrine gland found in the throat which, due to a lack of iodine, forms what is known as a goiter? Thyroid
What is name of the endocrine gland found at the base of the brain which is classically known as the “master gland” since it produces many hormones that regulate the body? Pituitary
Erwin Chargaff is credited with discovering the rule that says that in a DNA molecule, the percentages of adenine and thymine are roughly equivalent, as are the percentages of cytosine and what other nucleic acid? Guanine
Rosalind Franklin is credited with providing the data from diffraction studies that ultimately led to the double-helix discovery by Watson and Crick. What kind of electromagnetic radiation, also used to see broken bones did she use? X-rays
What scientist, on whose work Franklin based her studies, shared the 1962 Nobel Prize with Watson and Crick? (Maurice) Wilkins
What is the name of one-celled organisms, which comes in red, brown, and green varieties, are found in water, and have chlorophyll? Algae
What is the name of one-celled organisms which move by means of pseudopods or “fake feet” that are found in soil or in water? Amoeba
What is the term for an animal whose skin contains no pigment? Albino
Insects are arthropods with how many legs? Six
Spiders are arthropods with how many legs? Eight
What class of arthropods includes shrimp, crabs, and lobsters? Crustaceans
Typhoid Mary’s germs were stored in what organ that stores bile from the liver? Gallbladder
What term describes people like Typhoid Mary, who can pass a disease to other people without getting it themselves? Carriers
Many people passed typhoid along through what general type of food product? Dairy (products)
This class of nutrient is essential for growth and repair of cells. Name this class of nutrients, which is made from amino acids. Proteins
This class of nutrient is essential for energy of a cell. The simplest one, glucose, is used in respiration. Name this class of nutrients, which includes sugars and starches. Carbohydrates
This class of nutrient helps with maintaining cell function. They can be present in enzymes but can keep one healthy. Name this class of nutrient, which includes A, the B-complex, C, D, and E. Vitamins
This first stage of mitosis involves the cell engaging in metabolic activity and preparing for the next four phases of mitosis. A cell may spend 90% of time in this phase. Interphase
This last stage of mitosis involves chromatids at opposite ends of the cell, and new membranes forming around the daughter nuclei. The chromosomes in this phase disperse and are no longer visible under the light microscope. Telophase
This stage of mitosis involves the proteins that are binding the sister chromatids separating; now turning them into chromosomes. Afterwards, the centrosomes are pushed towards opposite ends of the sell. Anaphase
Created by: MorganT932