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Physiology hormones

WVSOM -- Endocrine Physiology Endocrine Master List

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Hypothalmus; stimulates secretion of TSH TO: anterior pituitary
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone hypothalmus; Stimulates ACTH; internal & external factors alter release TO: anterior pituitary
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Hypothalmus; stimulates LH and FSH TO: anterior pituitary
Growth Hormone anterior pituitary, produced by somatotrophs; promotes protein synthesis & use of fats for fuel; effect mediated indirectly by IGFs TO: bone & skeletal muscle low: pituitary dwarfism high: gigantism, acromegaly
Gonadocorticoids adrenal cortex; onset of puberty, secondary sex characteristics & sex drive high: masculinization of females
Dopamine (prolactin-inhibiting hormone) Hypothalmus; inhibits secretion of prolactin TO: anterior pituitary
Thyroid Stimulating hormone anterior pitutiary, produced by thyrotrophs; stimulates thyroid hormones TO: thyroid gland low: cretinism, myxedema high: hyperthyroidism / Graves' Disease
Follicle Stimulating Hormone anterior pituitary, produced by gonadotrophs; stimulates gamete production; suppressed by gonadal hormones (feedback) low: failure of sexual maturation
Leutinizing Hormone anterior pituitary, produced by gonadotrophs; promotes production of gonadal hormones low: failure of sexual maturation
Prolactin anterior pituitiary, produced by lactotrophs; stimulates milk production, breast development and inhibits ovulation.
Acrenocorticotropic Hormone anterior pituitary, produced by corticotrophs in daily rhythm; stimulates adrenal cortical hormones TO: adrenal cortex high: Cushing's Disease
Oxytocin posterior pituitary; milk ejection; uterine contraction
Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) posterior pituitary; H2O re-absorption: low water intake -high ADH- low urine output TO: kidneys low: diabetes insipidus high: SIADH
Thyroxine (T4) Thyroid Gland; target tissues convert T4 to T3, both transported by thyroxine-binding globulins low: myxedema, cretinism high: Graves' Disease
Triiodothyrome (T3) Thyroid gland; increases metabolic rate & heat production; maintains blood pressure, tissue growth, develops skeletal & NS, reproductive capabilites.10X more active than T4 (w 3 bound Iodine atoms); negative feedback release TSH, TRH can surpass low: myxedema, cretinism high: Graves' Disease
Glucocorticoids (cortisol) adrenal cortex produced by ACTH; stimulates gluconeogenesis; anti-inflammatory; immunosuppression low: Addison's Disease high: Cushing's Syndrome
Progesterone ovary; maturation of female reproductive organs, participates in development of the breasts; negative feedback to FSH and LH
Testosterone testes; male secondary sex characteristics, necessary for normal sperm production
Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid gland; increases serum Ca, decreases serum phosphate, absorb bone tissue. "when Ca levels in the blood are low, PTH will be the one to show." from: osteoclasts in bone matrix TO: blood stream & secretion of phosphate by kidneys low: due to trauma/removal = death high: due to tumor = soft bones, kidney stones
Calcitonin thyroid gland, parafollicular (C cells); decreases serum Ca, uptakes and incorporates into bone matrix; regulated by negative feedback "When Ca levels in the blood are high, say 'hi' to calcitonin; PTH goodbye"
Mineralocorticoids adrenal cortex; increased renal Na reabsorption, increase renal K secretion, water follows sodium!; Aldosterone is most potent (raises BP) TO: kidneys low: Addison's Disease high: Aldosteronism
Glucagon Pancreas, produced by alpha cells; promotes glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis, release of glucose to the blood TO: liver
Insulin Pancreas, produced by beta cells; decrease blood glucose, stores glucose as glycogen in fat & muscle cells low: diabetes mellitus high: hypoglycemia (low blood glucose)
Human chorionic gonadotropin placenta; increases estrogen and progesterone synthesis in corpus luteum of pregnancy
Aldosterone comes from the Zonea Glomerulosa
Glucocorticoids come from Zona Fasciculata
Androgens come from zona reticularis
3 layers of the adrenal cortex Zona glomerulosa zona fasciculata zona reticularis
Amino acid-based hormones water soluble; cannot cross plasma membrane transport freely in plasma
humoral stimuli hormone release by altered levels of critical ions or nutrients
neural stimuli hormone release by neural input
hormonal stimuli hormone release by another (tropic) hormone
3 factors influencing activation of a target cell blood levels, number of receptors, attraction of binding between hormone & receptor
permissiveness one cannot go without another
synergism one amplifies another
antagonism one opposes another
hypothalamus controls release of hormones from the pituitary gland, which has 2 parts
tropic hormones TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH regulate secretory action of other endocrine glands
Norepinephrine adrenal medulla (sympathetic NS), chromaffin cells; 20% influences peripheral vasoconstriction & BP high: hypertension
Epinephrine adrenal medulla (sympathetic NS), chromaffin cells; 80% stimulates metabolic activities, bronchial dilation and blood flow to skeletal muscles & heart high: prolonged fight-or-flight
4 functions of catecholamines blood glucose levels to rise, blood vessels to constrict, heart to beat faster, blood diverted to brain, heart, & skeletal muscle
Melatonin pineal gland; timing of sexual maturation, day/night cycles, physiological rhythmic variations
Atrial natriuretic peptide heart; reduces BP, blood volume & blood Na concentration TO: kidney
Renin kidneys; initiates renin-angiotensin mechanism: low BP releases renin to blood & triggers cascade of angiotensin II, which stimulates glomerulosa cells to release aldosterone, increasing BP to normal
Cholecalciferol skin; the precursor of vitamin D TO: intestine
Erythropoietin kidneys; signals production of RBCs
Leptin adipose tissue; involved in appetite control, stimulates increased energy expenditure TO: muscle, liver
Thymulin, Thymopoietins, Thymosins involved in the normal development of the T lymphocytes in the immune response; act locally as paracrines
autocrines locally acting chemicals that exert effects on the same cells that secrete them
paracrines locally acting chemicals that affect cells other than those that secrete them
hormones long distance chemical signals that travel in the blood or lymph
gluconeogenesis formation of glucose from fats & proteins
Steroid hormones lipid soluble; act on receptors inside cell transport bound to plasma proteins gonad & adrenocortical hormones
Created by: tjamrose



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