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MAT ArtArcRev

TermDefinition
abstract art art form that assumes that artistic values reside in form and color and are independent of the subject of the art or painting
abstract expressionism 1940s-to-1950s American art movement stressing spontaneous, nonrepresentational creation with emphasis on the paint itself; first truly American school of art (Pollock)
art deco 192.0s-to-1930s art movement stressing highly decorative art, utilizing geometric, streamlined forms inspired by industrial design (Chrysler Building in New York City)
art nouveau 1895-to-1905 "new art" movement characterized by motifs of highly stylized flowing plants, curving lines, and fluent forms
ashcan school early 20th century school of American realist painters who abandoned idealized subjects for more sordid aspects of urban life
Audubon, John James (1785-1851) early 19th century American artist and illustrator known for his color engravings of birds (Birds in America)
Barbizon school mid-19th century group oflandscape artists who rejected the classical and romantic to portray nature as they perceived it; forerunner of impressionism (Rousseau)
baroque late 16th-to-early 18th century movement, developed in Italy, that stressed grand theatrical effects and elaborate ornamentation (Palace of Versailles)
Bauhaus most famous school of architecture and design of modern times; founded in Germany in 1919; austere, geometric style (founder: Gropius; teachers: Klee and Kandinsky)
beaux arts architectural style, popular from 1890 to 1920, using formal and classical techniques
Bosch, Hieronymus (1450-1516) early 16th century painter considered perhaps the greatest master of fantasy ever (Garden of Earthly Delights)
Botticelli, Sandro (1444-1510) 15th century Italian Renaissance artist (The Birth of Venus, St. Sebastian)
Brancusi, Constantin (1876-1957) 19th-to-20th century Romanian sculptor known for highly simplified archetypical human and animal forms (The Kiss, Bird in Space) .
Brueghel, Pieter (the Elder) (1525-1569) 16th century Flemish painter known for peasant scenes and large landscapes; sometimes known as "Peasant Bruegel" (Hunters in the Snow, The Harvesters)
Byzantine art Eastern (Greek) art of the 5th to 15th centuries, characterized by Oriental motifs, formal design, and free use of gilding
Caldecott, Randolph (1864-1886) 19th century English illustrator known for his illustrations of children's books; the prestigious Caldecott Award is given annually for excellence in children's book illustration
Calder, Alexander (1898-1976) 20th century American sculptor and abstract painter best known for mobiles and stabiles (nonmoving sculptures) (Lobster Trap and Fish Tail, Spiral)
Cellini, Benvenuto (1500-1571) 16th century Florentine sculptor, goldsmith, and designer of coins and medals (Perseus bronze, gold saltcellar)
Cezanne, Paul (1839-1906) 19th century French painter, often considered the forerunner of many 20th century art movements; romantic, impressionist, classical, and naturalistic influences are all condensed in his work (Grande Baigneuses, Self Portrait, The Black Clock,
Chagall, Marc (1889-1985) 20th century French painter of Russian-Jewish origin, forerunner of surrealism (The Juggler, The Green Violinist)
chiaroscuro the balance of light and shadow in a picture; used to describe works that are predominantly dark, like those of Rembrandt
classicism art attributed to ancient Greece and Rome, characterized by discipline, harmony, objectivity, and reason
cloisonne a process of enameling in which a design is displayed in strips of metal on a china or metal background, making channels, or cloisons, to hold the enamel colors
Cole, Thomas (1801-1848) 19th century American landscape painter; member of the Hudson River school of painting
collage a picture built up wholly or partly from pieces of paper, cloth, or other material stuck on canvas or other surface (early cubists, dadaists, Matisse)
Constable, John (1776-1837) 19th century English landscape painter (The Holy Wain)
constructivism movement, since the 1920s, principally in Russia, involving the creation of three-dimensional art, using iron, glass, plastic, and other materials to express technological society (Calder's mobiles)
Copley, John Singleton (1738-1815) 18th century American protrait painter
cubism 1907 -to- 1915 art movement, mainly French, characterized by fragmentation of reality; used geometric forms in nature as a departure from representational art; a reaction to impressionism (Picasso)
Currier, Nathaniel T. (1813-1888) and Ives, James Merrit (1824-1895) 19th century American lithographers known for prints depicting American life
dada 1915-to-1923 international anti-art movement reflecting cynicism by producing bizarre works that represented the absurd (Mona Lisa with a Mustache)
Dali, Salvador (1904-1989) 20th century Spanish painter, considered one of the foremost surrealists (Premonition of the Civil War, Christ of St. John of the Cross, Persistence of Memory)
Daumier, Honore (1808-1879) 19th century French lithographer, cartoonist, and social satirist (The Print Collector, The People of Justice)
Degas, Edgar (1834-1917) late 19th-early 20th century French painter (Study of a Dancer, Woman on Horseback)
de Kooning, Willem (1904-1997) 20th century Dutch abstract painter known for distorted shapes and tragic expressions (Woman, I)
Delacroix, Eugene (1798-1863) 19th century French painter of the Romantic period (Liberty at the Barricades)
Donatello (1386-1466) 15th century Florentine sculptor; one of the founders of Italian Renaissance sculpture (David, St. George Slaying the Dragon)
Durer, Albrecht (1471-1528) late 15th-early 16th century German artist known for his woodcuts and engravings (His Mother, a charcoal drawing; Adam and Eve, an engraving; and The Apocalypse, a series of woodcuts)
engraving a method of multiplying prints. See also, relief, intaglio, and lithography
Ernst, Max (1891-1976) 20th century German-born French artist, a leading surrealist and one of the founders of dada; known for his "reveries" (Europe After the Rain, Mundus est Fabula)
expressionism 20th century art in which the expression of the artist takes precedence over rational and faithful rendering of the subject matter; stress on emotions and inner visions (van Gogh, EI Greco)
fauvism work of early 20th-century impressionists, characterized by strident color and distortion; first artistic revolution of the 20th century (Matisse, Roualt)
Fayum portrait realistic form of portraiture found on shrouds and mummy cases from the 1st to 4th centuries
fresco wall painting; painting on wet plaster
frieze middle section of a building, where relief sculpture was often executed
Fuller, Buckminster (1895-1983) 20th century American avant-garde architect famous for his geodesic domes
futurism 1910 Italian art movement that stressed motion and sought to glorify the machine by painting and sculpting multitudes of moving parts
Gainsborough, Thomas (1727-1788) 18th century English painter of landscapes and portraits (Blue Boy)
gargoyle in Gothic architecture, a bizarre creature whose open mouth was used as a gutter to carry water away from the walls
Gauguin, Paul (1848-1903) 19th century French painter best known for his depiction of simple life in Tahiti (Indian Ocean Maiden)
glazing a process of applying a transparent layer of oil paint over a solid one so that the color of the first layer is greatly modified
Gothic 12th-to-16th century style of architecture typical of northern Europe (cathedrals with elaborate architecture and stained glass panels)
Goya, Francisco Jose de (1746-1828) late 18th-early 19th century Spanish painter and printmaker (Majas on a Balcony)
Greco, El (1541-1614) 16th century Greek painter who lived and worked in Spain (The Annunciation, The Burial of the Count of Orgaz)
Hogarth, William (1697-1764) 18th century English artist (Signing the Marriage Contract)
Holbein, Hans (the Younger) (1497-1543) 16th century German Renaissance painter (Dance of Death, Dead Christ)
holograph an image in three dimensions created by a laser passing through a photographic film or plate without a camera
Homer, Wmslow (1836-1910) late 19th century American painter and illustrator; Civil War illustrations
Hopper, Edward (1882-1967) 20th century American artist known for bleak, surreal scenes depicting city life and the ennui of workers
Hudson River school mid-19th century American school of landscape painting known for its romantic scenes glorifying nature
impasto thick application of pigment to canvas
impressionism late 19th century French school that stressed visual impression; first of the modern art movements (Monet, Renoir, Degas)
intaglio engraving on stone to achieve a concave effect; opposite of cameo
Johns, Jasper (b. 1930) 20th century American pop artist known for blown-up images (Flags, Targets)
Kandinsky, Wassily (1866-1944) late 19th-early 20th century Russian-born German artist, one of the founders of the abstract movement; known for kinetic lines
Kinetic art art that moves through magnets, motorized parts, etc.
Klee, Paul (1879-1940) late 19th-early 20th century Swiss painter and etcher known for his whimsical works that sought to portray reality through its inner nature (Inventions, Senecio)
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) late 15th-early 16th century Italian artist and scientist; most versatile genius of the Renaissance (fresco: The Last Supper, painting: Mona Lisa; notebook drawings of human anatomy)
lithography method of printing that uses wax and ink on hard plates
luminism American art movement associated with impressionism, concerned with the effect of light
Maillol, Aristide (1861-1944) late 19th-early 20th century French painter and sculptor (The Three Graces, Seated Woman)
Manet, Edouard (1832-1883) 19th century French painter who contributed much to the development of impressionism, although he himself was not a member of the group (The Fifer, Guitarist)
mannerism 1520s-to-1590s school of art and architecture characterized by the exotic and confusing and the distortion of the human form (El Greco, Vassari) .
Matisse, Henri (1869-1954) late 19th-early 20th century French artist known for his still-life subjects; a member of the fauve group and influenced by impressionism (JaZz: Icarus, Fruits and Flowers)
Michelangelo, Bounarotti (1475-1564) late 15th-early 16th century Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who embodied the Renaissance (Pieta, David, Madonna and Child, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel)
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig (1886-1969) 20th century German-American architect known for clean-line skyscrapers of glass and metal and for steelĀ­framed furniture (Barcelona chair)
minimal art contemporary art movement that rejects emotional expression and stresses restraint, understatement, and precision
Mire, Joan (1893-1983) 20th century Spanish surrealist painter known for depicting fantasies (Dutch Interior, Woman and Bird in the Moonlight)
mobile a kinetic sculpture consisting of shapes cut from different materials and hung at different levels (Calder)
modern art art, since the 1850s, that has extricated itself from subject matter and stresses form
Modigliani, Amedeo (1884-1920) late 19th-early 20th century Italian sculptor and painter known for his sad, elongated faces (Seated Nude, The Brown Haired Girl)
Mondrian, Piet (1872-1944) late 19th-early 20th century Dutch abstract painter known for his geometric shapes (Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue)
Monet, Claude (1840-1926) late 19th-early 20th century French painter, a leader of impressionism; known for seeing nature with an "objective eye" (Water Lily paintings)
montage sticking one layer over another, especially photographs applied to an unusual background; associated with cubists
Moore, Henry (1898-1986) 20th century British sculptor known for large-scale abstract works and "truth to materials" doctrine (Family Group)
Moses, Anna Mary (Grandma) (1860-1961) late 19th-early 20th century American painter known for her simple depictions of New England life and landscapes
Murillo, Bartolome Estebon (1617-1682) 17th century Spanish painter (Immaculate Conception, Beggar Boy)
Nast, Thomas (1840-1902) 19th century American illustrator and cartoonist known for his depictions of Tweed ring and Tammany Hall
naturalism late 19th century art movement that tried to depict humans and society true to life and in precise detail
neoclassicism 1790s-1830s rejection of rococo and a return to classical style; characterized by restraint and balance
O'Keeffe, Georgia (1887-1986) 20th century American painter known for her large New Mexican landscapes
op art 1960s American art movement derived from popular culture and commercial art, with art culled from everyday life (Warhol)
pastiche piece of art created in the style of a particular artist or movement but not faked, as in forgery
Picasso, Pablo (1881-1973) 20th century Spanish painter, sculptor, and printmaker considered one of the foremost artists of the 20th century. After his "Blue period" paintings of despairing people and his "Rose period" circus paintings, he turned to cubism and still lat
pointillism 1880s art form in which tiny dots of paint, when viewed from a distance, take on the shape of objects (Seurat)
Pollock, Jackson (1912-1956) 20th century American painter of the abstract expressionist school known for his large canvases (later cut up) that aim to create subconscious reality
Raphael (1483-1520) early 16th century Italian painter who, along with Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, is considered a creator of the Renaissance (Transfiguration, St. Michael, Saint George and the Dragon)
realism art form that attempts to search for the squalid and depressing with a style of strict attention to detail
relief sculpture that is not free standing; in having a background, the sculpture resembles a painting
Rembrandt, Harmensz (1606-1669) 17th century Dutch painter who is best known for his portraits but who also did landscapes, Biblical subjects, and etchings (Self Portrait with Sprouting Beard, Night Watch, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes T ulp)
Remington, Frederic (1861-1909) 19th century American painter, illustrator, and sculptor known for his romantic scenes of the American Old West
Renoir, Pierre-Auguste (1841-1919) late 19th-early 20th century French painter; a founder of impressionism (Moulin de la Galette, Les Grandes Baigneuses)
Reynolds, Sir Joshua (1723-1792) 18th century British portrait painter rococo 1730s-to-1780s style of European art that glorified asymmetrical ornamentation on paneling, porcelain, and jewelry to display a love of gaiety and elegance
Rodin, Auguste (1840-1917) late 19th-early 20th century French sculptor, the most famous sculptor of the late 19th century (The Thinker, The Kiss)
romanticism a current throughout art history that stresses the importance of fantasy and the imagination over reason and order
Rothko, Mark (1903-1970) 20th century Russian-born American abstract expressionist painter known for his canvases of irregular shapes and bands of color
Rouault, Georges (1871-1958) late 19th-early 20th century French expressionist painter (The Apprentice, Christian Nocturne, The Holy Face)
Rousseau, Henri (1844-1910) 19th century French painter, one of the foremost primitive artists of the modern age (The Sleeping Gypsy, The Dream)
Rubens, Peter Paul (1577-1640) late 16th-early 17th century Flemish baroque painter, the most famous artist of northern Europe in his day (The Judgment of Paris, Portrait of Helene Fourment, The Descent from the Cross)
Sargent, John Singer (1856-1925) late 19th-early 20th century American portrait painter (Lady Hamilton)
serial art the repetition, possibly with slight variation, of a particular image in a work of art (Warhol)
serigraphy a type of silk screen painting
Seurat, Georges (1859-1891) 19th century French artist who introduced pointillism (Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte)
sfumato painting technique in which one tone is blended into another without an abrupt outline
still life the depiction of inanimate objects
surrealism art form, since 1924, that seeks to reveal psychological reality behind appearances; subject matter stresses dreams, fantasies, and the subconscious (Magritte, Dali, Mira)
symbolism 1885 movement in art that sought to depict the world through the visionary eye of dreams and illusions
Titian (1488-1576) 16th century Italian artist, one of the greatest masters of the Renaissance (Assumption, Venus of Urbina, Venus and Adonis)
Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de (1864-1901) 19th century French artist influenced by the impressionists Uane Avril, The Moulin Rouge)
triptych three panels, usually arranged or joined by hinges so that the two wings can be folded over to cover the larger central panel
Turner, Joseph Mallord William (1775-1851) late 18th-early 19th century British landscape artist (Fighting Temeraire)
Utrillo, Maurice (1883-1955) late 19th-early 20th century French painter (Sacre Coeur)
van Dyck, Sir Anthony (1599-1641) 17th century Flemish painter (Charles I of England in Hunting Dress, Portrait of Charles V)
van Eyck, Jan (1390-1440) 15th century Flemish painter known for his perfection of the oil medium
van Gogh, Vincent (1853-1890) 19th century Dutch postimpressionist painter (The Sunflowers, Starry Night, Self-Portrait)
Velazquez, Diego (1599-1660) 17th century Spanish painter (The Maids of Honor, Pope Innocent X)
Vermeer, Jan (1632-1675) 17th century Dutch painter known for his domestic scenes (Woman With a Water jug, The Lacemaker)
vignette decoration, often of leaves, adorning the first letter of a chapter of book section
Vuillard, Edouard (1868-1940) late 19th-early 20th century French post-impressionist painter (Under the Trees)
Warhol, Andy (1928-1987) 20th century American pop artist (Ten-Foot Flowers)
Whisder, James Abbott McNeill (1834-1903) 19th century American painter and etcher (Whistlers Mother)
Wood, Grant (1892-1942) 20th century American regionalist painter famous for midwestern American memes (American Gothic)
Wren, Sir Christopher (1632-1723) late 17th-early 18th century English architect known for his reconstruction of St. Paul's Cathedral and other parts of London
Wright, Frank Lloyd (1867-1959) 20th century American architect known for "organic architecture" (Taliesin West, Guggenheim Museum in New York City)
Wyeth, Andrew (1917-2009) 20th century American painter known for his depictions of Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, and Maine fishing village subjects (Ground Hog Day)
Created by: markda714