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Language and Culture

Every language is enormously complex. True
Every language is systematic on many levels. True
Every language varies systematically person to person, area to area, situation to situation. True
Languages are diverse True
languages have many universal properties they share (parameters, principles). True
Some properties of language are arbitrary. True
Speech is primary, writing is secondary. True
Children aren't taught language True
All languages change as time passes True
Attitudes about speech are very different from the facts. True
Everyone is monolingual or mono-dialect, just like America. False
English spelling is phonetic and governed by rules. False
Most writing systems are based on an alphabet False
If you want to learn a language, don't take a class, just visit the country for a month or two False
Some languages are naturally harder than others False
Some languages are more "primative" False
Language isn't ambiguous False
Some dialects are stupid False
Language usage reflects one's intelligence False
Fluent in another language but not master at native False
Learning another language is a skill False
The dictionary is right! False
Double negatives means not thinking logically False
Easier to learn Chinese if from Chinese family background or European family False
languages have special characteristics/personalities False
All Native Americans generally speak some language - can communicate with sign language False
More words you know, better you know language False
Dialect understood by majority School, businesses, ESL, textbooks, media prestigous Standard Dialect
more systematical dialect nonstandard dialect
problems with orthography different than sounds arbitrary
study of body language kinesics
study of cultural patterning of spacial separation proxemics
means of overcoming distance Mazateco, Silbo Gomero whistle languages
in Sumeria ~3500 BCE picture = sound cuneiforms
Egypt writing hyroglyphics
meaning + sound logographic/pictographic
descriptive characteristics of human language displacement productivity/openness reflexiveness
displacement tenses/time
productivity/openness originality
reflexiveness use language to talk about language
prelanguage preceded full-fledged language
protolanguages PIE reconstructed parent languages
Australopithecus southern ape Lucy
homo habilus considered to be first human
homo erectus large game hunters fire BLENDING
archaic homo sapiens Neanderthals rituals PRELANGUAGE
homo sapiens sapiens earliest stage of full fledged language
imitation theory learn language through imitation, memorization and reward
innateness theory children don't learn language
UG language is innate
poverty of the stimulus experiment WUG
negatives questions plurals tenses possessives nouns/verbs articles children's rule- governed errors
lexical categories N, V, ADJ
functional categories prep, art, conj, past tense
progressive past tense irreg -ed over-generalization past tense reg reg 3rd person singular present irreg 3rd person singular present verb order acquistion
no plural irreg plural -s over-generalization plural -s -es over-generalization unusual irregs plural order of acquisition
birth - 2 yrs----needs exposure to language 10-16 yrs----puberty critical periods
left hemisphere languge
right hemisphere perception of non-linguistic sounds (birds)
200 million nerve fibers corpus callosum
thick membrane cortex
separates temporal and frontal lobes sylvian fissure
next to sylvian fissure auditory cortex
lower back of each hemisphere visual cortex
upper middle, perpendicular to sylvian fissure, each hemisphere motor cortex
base of motor cortex articulatory patterns inflectional morphemes and functional categories broca's area
back of auditory cortex comprehension and selection of words Wernicke's area
nerve fibers connecting brocas and wernickes mental lexicon arcuate fasciculus
between wernickes and visual cortex converts visual to auditory and v.v read and write angular gyrus
telegraphic speech broca's aphasia
fluent but meaningless speech wernicke's aphasia
same phoneme/morpheme dont occur in same environment
different phoneme/morpheme (near) minimal pair
Created by: 100001888150240


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