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Neurology Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Define motor control ability to maintain and change posture and movement
Define motor learning set of processes that bring about change in motor performance
What is difference between neuroanatomy and neurophysiology? anatomy-structure; physiology-function
What are 2 anatomical divisions of the nervous system? CNS and PNS
What are the 2 physiological divisions of the nervous system? somatic and autonomic
What part of brain responsible for higher brain function? cerebral cortex
Frontal lobe reasoning, planning, speech, movement, emotions, problem-solving
Temporal lobe perception, recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, speech
Parietal lobe movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
Occipital lobe visual processing
Cerebellum regulation and coordination of movement, posture, balance
Brain stem basic vital life functions (heart rate, respirations, etc.)
Name two methods of synaptic communication electrical and chemical (most common)
Define neuron unit of structure of nervous system
Part of neuron that conducts toward cell body dendrite (receives)
Part of neuron that conducts away from cell body axon (sends)
Cell bodies inside the CNS gray matter
Axons inside the CNS white matter
Cell bodies outside the CNS ganglia
Two primary functions of the spinal cord connect parts of PNS to the brain; responsible for simple reflexes
How many pairs of spinal nerves 31 pairs
How many cranial nerves 12 pairs
Is Post Polio Syndrome a LMN or UMN dysfunction? LMN
What symptoms are associated with Post Polio Syndrome? fatigue, increased weakness of muscles, atrophy, joint pain, deformities
Is Guillain-Barre a LMN or UMN dysfunction? LMN
What symptoms are associated with Gullain-Barre? pain/tenderness of muscles, weakness, atrophy, sensory loss
Is Myasthenia Gravis a LMN or UMN dysfunction? LMN
What symptoms are associated with Myasthenia Gravis? weakness and abnormal fatigue of skeletal muscle (especially eyes) but may involve limbs, death usually results due to respiratory complication
Are muscular dystrophies LMN or UMN dysfunction? LMN
What symptoms are associated with muscular dystrophies? vary by type, severity and prognosis look different case by case
Is Alzheimer's Disease a LMN or UMN dysfunction? UMN
What symptoms are associated with Alzheimer's? dementia, slow degenerative disease, ultimately results in death, memory loss, inability to regulate emotions, personality shifts, difficulty with speech
Is Multiple Sclerosis a LMN or UMN dysfunction? UMN
What symptoms are associated with Multiple Sclerosis? autoimmune condition, course of disease variable and unpredictable, fatigue, visual/cognitive/emotional disturbances, decreased postural control, tremor, spasticity, heat intolerance
Is Huntington's Disease a LMN or UMN dysfunction? UMN
What symptoms are associated with Huntington's Disease? affects voluntary and involuntary movement, chorea, rigidity, cognitive/behavioral/psychological changes, depression, death
Is Parkinson's Disease a LMN or UMN dysfunction? UMN
What symptoms are associated with Parkinson's Disease? tremor, skeletal muscle rigidity, change in gait pattern (shuffle), decreased motor skills, depression, memory deficits
Is ALS a LMN or UMN dysfunction? can be both
What symptoms are associated with ALS? affects voluntary muscles, motor incoordination, focal weakness, slurred speech, emotional lability, fasciculations
Do UMN or LMN dysfunction result in spasticity? UMN
Do UMN or LMN dysfunction result in weakness? LMN
Collection of nerve cells inside CNS nuclei
Collection of nerve cells outside the CNS ganglia
Excitable cell that receives/ sends signals neuron
Chemical substance that transmits impulses between neurons neurotransmitter
Portion of a neuron that transmits signals axon
Conveys a sensory signal afferent
Conveys a motor signal efferent
Space between neurons where communication occurs synapse
Carry impulses toward cell body dendrite
Are spinal nerves sensory or motor? mixed
Are cranial nerves sensory or motor? some are sensory only, some are motor only, some are mixed
Which anatomical system of the nervous system do the cranial nerves belong in? PNS
What is located in the dorsal root ganglion? sensory fibers that are coming down and out
What does ganglion mean? a group of cell bodies outside the CNS, meaning they are part of the PNS
What direction do pathways carrying sensory information travel? up the spinal cord to the brain
What direction do pathways carrying motor information travel? down the spinal cord to the cell body of neurons
What is the primary function of the cerebellum? regulation, coordination of movement, posture, and balance
What structure of the CNS is responsible for basic life functions? brain stem
Define neuroplasticity brain's wiring can change based on life experiences
What is paresis? muscle weakness
Define fasciculation twitch in small muscle, involuntary
What is the effect of injury to UMN on voluntary movement? paralysis
What is the effect of injury to LMN on voluntary movement? paralysis
Define microphagia abnormally small handwriting
Define emotional lability emotional inconsistency, emotion doesn't connect with the circumstance
What is the best way to slow progression of symptoms for dementia? exercise
What is the right side of the brain associated with? logic, visual, spatial, problem-solving
What is the left side of the brain associated with? language, colors, music
All sensory axons pass into the... dorsal root ganglia
What is adiadochokinedsia? inability to perform rapid, alternating movements
Created by: 608105597