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WVSOM -- phys

WVSOM Overview of endocrine system

What are hormones derived from? amino acids, polypeptides/peptides, fatty acids and cholesterol
What hormones are derived from amino acids? thyroid hormones, epi, dopamine, norepi, seretonin
What hormones are derived from fatty acids? prostaglandins, thromboxanes
What hormones are derived from cholesterol? steroids and vitamin D
Where are the 2 places hormone receptors located? intracellular and plasma membrane
What are the intracellular hormone receptors? nulcear; steroid, thyroid hormones and vitamin D
What are the plasma membrane hormone receptors? amino acid derived, fatty acid derivatives and steroids
What factors influence a hormone’s affect on a cell/tissue? concentration of hormones, presence, number, sensitivity of receptors, inactivation/clearance of hormone, and pattern ofhormonal release
What is the functional unit of the endocrine system? hormones
What do hormones regulate? enzyme reactions, transport of ions/molecules across embranes, gene expression and protein synthesis
What are hormone effects mediated by? receptors
What concentrations do hormones have to exert effects? low concentrations
What regulates the ability of hormones to affect cells/tissues? half-life
What is hemocrine? hormone released from cell and enters blood vessels
What is paracrine? hormone released from cell and interacts with receptor on nearby cells
What is intercrine? direct transfer fo messenger molecule into adjacent cells via gap junctions
What is juxtacrine? messenger molecule remains associated with cell membrane of signaling cell and interacts with receptor on adjacent cell
What is autocrine? hormone secreted and interacts with receptor on same cell
What is neurocrine? messenger molecules produced by neurons. Synaptic and non-synaptic
What is synaptic neurocrine? messenger molecules traverses synaptic space
What is non-synaptic neurocrine? messenger molecule is carried to site of action by ECF or blood.
What is solicrine? messenger molecule secreted into lumen of ductal system. (GI, respiratory, urogenital)
What is intracrine? uptake of hormonal precursor and intracellular conversion to effective hormone and subsequent binding to intracellular receptors
What are examples of AA derived hormones? dopamine, epinephrine, norepi, serotonin, thyroxine and triodothyronine
What are the 4 classifications of hormones? AA, peptide/polypeptide, steroid, FA
What are the 4 types of steroid hormones? Androgens, Oestrogens, Mineralocorticoids, and glucocorticoids
What fatty acid is the precursor to the FA hormones? arachidonic acid
What are the 4 things that regulate hormone release? nerve activation, environmental changes, hormonal stimulation and feedback to endocrine tissue
What are the 2 types of environmental changes that regulate hormone release? Internal and external
What are some internal environmental changes? metabolic/osmotic
What is an example of external environmental changes? stress
What is an example of hormonal stimulation to regulation of hormone release? hypothalamus and pituitary target certain organs
What are the 2 intracellular receptors? cytoplasmic and nuclear
What are the plasma membrane receptors? G proteins, tyrosine kinases, serine/threonine kinases and ion channels
What are the 3 types of hormone/hormone interactions? synergistic, antagonistic and permissive
What is an example of synergistic hormone/hormone interaction? glucagon and epinephrine
What is an example of antagonistic hormone/hormone interaction? insulin and glucagon
What is an example of permissive hormone/hormone interaction? steroid priming of hypothalamus/pituitary
Are plasma transport proteins saturable? no
Is there signal transduction with plasma proteins? no
What is the concentration of hormone receptors? low
What are circadian rhythms? pattern of secretion is every 24 hours e.g. melatonin
What is ultradian rhythm? pattern of secretions are frequent every 90-100 minutes eg. Growth hormone
What is infradian rhythm? pattern of secretion is over 24 hours e.g. LH surge
What is an example of a long feedback loop? secretion of peripheral gland indirectly affects pituitary hormone
What is an example of a short feedback look? secretion of pituitary affects hypothalamic hormone release
What is an example of ultrashort feedback loop? a hormone feedback to a cell of its production or a neighboring cell to inhibit further secretion of itself
What does the parathyroid secrete? PTH
What PTH do? increases blood calcium levels
What does the placenta secrete? progesterone
What are teh classic endocrine organs? hypothalmus, pituitary, pineal, parathyroid, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, testis, ovary, placenta
What does the adenohypophysis FLAT PEG FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, prolactin, endorphins, GH
What do the ovaries produce estrogen, progestins, , inhibins
What do the testies secrete? androgens, inhibin
What does the thyroid secrete? thyroxine (t4), triiodothyronine (t3) and calcitonin
What does the adreanal glands secrete? medulla -- epi, norepi cortex -- Glomerulosa is aldosterone, fascilata is corticosterones adn reticularis is androgens
What does the neurohypophysis secrete? Oxytocin, ADH
What does the pineal gland secrete? melatonin
Created by: tjamrose



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