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basic nutrition

Dr T

QuestionAnswer
name the 4 classic vitamin deficiencies beri beri, scurvy, pellagra, ricketts
what vitamin def causes beri beri B1 thiamine
what vitamin def causes scurvy Vit C, ascorbic acid
what vitamin def causes pellagra Vit B3 niacin
what vitamin def causes ricketts or osteomalacia Vit D choleycalciferol
SS of beri beri weakness, ataxia, footdrop, opthalmoplegia, nystagmus, neuropathy, cognitive deficit
SS of scurvy bleeding, fatigue and weakness, gingivitis
4 Ds of pellagra dermatitis (rough scaly skin -cassal necklace and gloves, diarrhea, dementia, death
SS rickets Delayed growth Pain in the spine, pelvis and legs Muscle weakness Because rickets softens the growth plates at the ends of a child's bones, it can cause skeletal deformities such as: Bowed legs Thickened wrists and ankles Breastbone projection
SS osteomalacia dull, aching pain affects the lower back, pelvis, hips, legs and rib, may be worse at night, or when putting weight on affected bones. Decreased muscle tone and leg weakness may cause a waddling gait and make it difficult for you to get around.
alcoholism associated vitamin xu B1 especially
Vegan associated vitamin xu B12, Fe, Zn, Ca++
Fat sol vitamins ADEK
Basal metabolic rate everything going on at rest
define Kilocalorie amount of heat required to raise 1 kilo water 1 degree C
define Deamination catabolism
what is positive Ntg balance and what conditions are associated with it? Positive nitrogen balance, which occurs when the intake of nitrogen is greater than its excretion, implies tissue formation and growth.
what is negative Ntg balance and what conditions are associated with it? Negative nitrogen balance, which occurs when more nitrogen is excreted than is taken in, indicates wasting or destruction of tissue.
what types of oil adversely affect the thyroid function? corn and soybean polyunsaturated
riboflavin property when excreted gives yellow color to urine
aquamephyton, Menadiol Acetate, Menadiol Sodium Phosphate, Menadione, Ménadione, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite, Menaquinone, Ménaquinone, Menatetrenone, Menatétrenone, Phytonadione, Methylphytyl Naphthoquinone, Phylloquinone, Phytomenadione Vitamin K names K1,2,3
VItamin K function clotting, synthesis of proteins found in plasma bone and kidneys
Disacharides maltose sucrose lactose
Vitamin A deficiency night blindness
vitamin A caution death!
vitamin E fxn Antioxidant intercepts free radicals and prevents cell damage protects red blood cells maintenance of vitamins A and C Vitamin E supports healthy skin protects against scar tissue and skin inflammation.Immune System cardiovascular health
carbohydrate digestion krebs cycle
structure of triglycerides 3 fatty acids and a glycerol
role of fats in stomach emptying time slows
CIS vs TRANS fats natural vs artificial
Casimir Funk 'father of vitamin therapy,' identified lack caused the 'deficiency disorders', as he called human beri-beri, scurvy, rickets and pellagra. In 1911, he designated these factors 'vitamins' (vital amines)
wernicke korsakoff syndrome Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome due to B1 Thiamine deficiency) a spectrum of disorders which also encompasses beriberi, usually secondary to alcohol abuse. It mainly causes vision changes, ataxia and impaired memory
wet beri beri affects what system? cardiovascular
dry beri beri affects what system? neuro
Japanese Dr Takaki treated beriberi w brown rice replacing milled white rice
Aristotle wrote about this disease that causes gingivitis, edentulousness, easy bruising and hemorrhage scurvy
Dr James Lind, scottish physician 1700s developed the theory that citrus fruits cured scurvy
Dr Albert Szent Gyorgi Hungarian physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.[1] He is credited with discovering vitamin C and the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle. Showed Vit C def causes vessels to leak
First described in Spain by Gasper Casal y Julian in 1735 Pellagra,(niacin B3 def) from maize based diet
what corrects B3 deficit in corn based diet? treating cornmeal w Lime
In 1914, the U.S. Public Health Service’s Dr. Joseph Goldberger Found that Pellagra was not infectious, but instead was caused by a deficiency in the diet. Many poor Southerners consumed a diet solely of meat, meal and molasses. Low-wages driving high-deficiency diets made the disease economic in origin.
Frances Glisson Wrote treatise on rickets published in 1650, describing the clinical and anatomic features in great detail
most common cause of blindness worldwide Vit A deficiency
primarily as component of collagen role of Vitamin C
what fuel is used overnight so we can sleep? Glycogen
stable when heated, single bonds that are tough to break Saturated Fat
glycolysis in mitochondrial Krebs cycle uses ATP
causes pancreatic cancer aspergillus aflatoxin from fermented (moldy) peanuts and grains
saccharide single sugar making a carbohydrate
causes fatty liver, diabetes T2 high fructose corn syrup
sucrose lactose maltose disaccharides
starch and glycogen polysaccharides
polysaccharides provide dietary fiber whose benefits are drawing in water, slows stomach emptying, binds bile, lowers cholesterol, feeds beneficial bacteria in gut
lignans are type of fiber that binds to bile salts and is basis for blood type diet theory because they can cause allergen antibody reaction
what are antiketogenic, protein sparing, make vital reserve of glycogen and are the #1 fuel source for body carbs
what is needed for portal vein absorption of chyme to liver amylase sucrase lactase and maltase
where bile stone can block and back up digestive juices ampul of vater
coconut and palm oils are solid non animal sources of saturated fats
EFAs linoleic acid function tissue strength, cholesterol metabolism, muscle strength, blood clotting, heart beating
HDL function carries cholesterol from tissues
LDL function carries cholesterol to tissues
repair mechanism of arteries damaged by inflammation, building material for cell membrains cholesterol
a sterol, not a fat cholesterol
function of fats protect vital organs, regulate body temp, insulate nerve fibers as myelin sheath, part of cell membrain
one of main causes of disease in western society polyunsaturated oils
define metabolism The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. Substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized.
define calorie approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere
what vitamin deficiency has recently been associated with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Vitamin D
Vitamin D3, or cholecalciferol, is formed in the skin after exposure to sunlight or ultra violet radiation.
Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol, is obtained from various food sources including milk and fish
The two forms of vitamin D are metabolized in the liver and stored as 25-hydroxyvitamin D
The role of vitamin D is best characterized as enabling calcium absorption and regulating calcium homeostasis. also play a role in phosphate absorption
Risk factors for hypovitaminosis D include premature birth, darker skin pigmentation, living at higher altitudes, obesity, malabsoprtion and older age.
higher boiling point- CIS or Trans? CIS isomers
stronger intermolecular forces, CIS or Trans? CIS isomers
higher melting point, CIC or Trans? trans isomers
Molecule with two of the same atoms in the opposite side of the double bond Trans isomer
molecule in which two of the same atoms are on the same side of the double bond is known as the cis isomer
the same molecular formula and molecular weight, but their physical properties are different. Cis and trans isomers
Trans isomers are comparatively non polar
Cis isomers are polar
Oleic acid is liquid at room temperature because cis molecules are loosely packed.
Elaidic acid is solid at room temperature because trans molecules are tightly packed.
If the hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bonds of the carbon chain then it is said to be in "cis" configuration.
If the hydrogen atoms are on the opposite side of the double bonds of the carbon chain, then it is said to be in "trans" configuration.
saturated fat non polar - hydrophobic, fat soluble
high Vitamin K2 a strong and significant decrease in CHD incidence and CHD-related deaths
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4) is synthesized by animal tissues and is found in meat, eggs, and dairy products
Menaquinone-7 is synthesized by bacteria during fermentation and is found in fermented soybeans (natto)
total energy requirement = BMR + physical activity + thermal effect of food (TEF)
losing weight too fast can cause healing crisis as toxins are released and stones - either kindey or gall bladder
follicular hyperkeratosis - goosebumps that don't go away Vitamin A deficiency
Bitot's spots buildup of keratin located superficially in the conjunctiva, which are oval, triangular or irregular in shape. These spots are a sign of vitamin A deficiency and are associated with conjunctival xerosis.
d'alphatocopherol vs dl'alphatocopherol natural vs synthetic
Essential fatty acids (EFA) are, according to the textbooks, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, we are able to synthesize our own unsaturated fats when we don't eat the "EFAs," so they are not "essential." The term thus appears to be a misnomer.
toxic oils that are dangerous to health soybean oil, corn oil, safflower oil, canola, sesame oil, sunflower seed oil, palm oil, and any others that are labeled as "unsaturated" or "polyunsaturated." Almond oil is very unsaturated.
The enzymes which break down proteins are inhibited by unsaturated fats, and these enzymes are needed not only for digestion, but also for production of thyroid hormones, clot removal, immunity, and the general adaptability of cells.
unsaturated oils block protein digestion in the stomach,
seed oils have two hazards: natural pesticide of the plant protective mechanism and concentrated toxins from industrial pesticides
highly saturated fats that are generally very safe but butter and lamb fat
the only vegetable oils that are really safe Coconut and olive oil
Coconut oil is unique in its ability to prevent weight-gain or cure obesity, by stimulating metabolism, is quickly metabolized, and functions in some ways as an antioxidant
In the United States, ____ is toxic because the pigs are fed large quantities of corn and soy beans lard
Coconut oil is the least fattening of all the oils
Unsaturated fats cause aging, clotting, inflammation, cancer, and weight gain.
Avoid foods which contain the polyunsaturated oils, such as corn, soy, safflower, flax, cottonseed, canola, peanut, and sesame oil.
Pork is now fed corn and soy beans, so ____ is usually as toxic as those oils; use only ____ ____. lard; lean pork
Fish oils for supplementation should include Vitamin E to prevent or to forestall oxidation
Fish oils are usually highly unsaturated
Unsaturated fats intensify estrogen's harmful effects.
Fifty years ago, it was found that a large amount of cod liver oil in dogs' diet increased their death rate from cancer by 20 times, from the usual 5% to 100%.
Sir Hopking 1929 Nobel for discovery of essential nutrient factors that came to be known as vitamins
1901 discoverer of Tryptophan Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
- inability to form new memories - loss of memory, can be severe - making up stories (confabulation) - seeing or hearing things that are not really there (hallucinations) Symptoms of Korsakoff syndrome:
Other conditions that may cause thiamine deficiency include: AIDS - CA w Mets, hyperemesis gravidarium - heart failure long-term diuretic therapy - long periods of intravenous (IV) therapy without receiving thiamine supplements - long-term dialysis - (thyrotoxicosis) - gastrectomy, gastric bypass surgery
pellagra is caused by a dietary lack of the B vitamin niacin along with reduced levels of the essential amino acid Tryptophan
To sustain life, nutrients in food must perform 3 basic functions in the body: Provide energy sources -energy to do work Build tissue -building materials to maintain form/function Regulate metabolic processes -control agents to regulate these processes
metabolism is The sum of all the chemical changes that take place in the body by which it maintains itself and produces energy for its functioning
vitamins and minerals Act as coenzyme factors in cells enzymes to govern chemical reactions in cell metabolism
Dietary fiber: regulates passage of food thru GI tract, influences absorption of various nutrients
Worldwide: 40,000 - 50,000 people die each day from malnutrition
Carbs : widely available, easily grown, low in cost, easily stored for long periods
• Monosaccharides (one sugar unit) • Disaccharides (2 sugar units) Simple Carbohydrates
• Polysaccharides (3 or more sugar units) Complex Carbohydrates
quickly absorbed from intestine to blood to liver converted by enzymes to glycogen for back up energy or immediate use Monosaccharides -
- Noncellulose polysaccharides and cellulose dietary fiber-absorb water, swell to larger bulk, slow emptying of food,from stomach-binds bile/cholesterol in intestines -provide fermentation material for colon material to work on, provides bulk
Natural fatty acids are CIS form
Partially hydrogenated veg oils are TRANS form linked to: ↑ serum lipids, ↓ essential FA metab, damage to cell membranes
the body is said to be in nitrogen balance If this ratio is maintained (for every 6.25 gr protein IN there is 1 gr nitrogen OUT)
Positive Nitrogen Balance - body takes in more nitrogen than it excretes (it stores it as new tissue)
Negative Nitrogen Balance - body takes in less nitrogen than it excretes results from inadequate protein intake, more tissue breaking down than being built up
K3- menadiones from bacteria
Three basic types of vitamin K: K1, K2, and K3.
K1- phylloquinones found in in plants (photosynthesis)
K2 -menaquinones derived from from K1 (K2 forms: MK-4 and MK-7 for bones)
Vitamin K Rx used to remove Ca from arteries and deposit into bones
VITAMIN K - PHYLLOQUINONE Functions -Blood clotting and Bone development
VITAMIN K - PHYLLOQUINONE Sources -Green leafy vegetables, dairy, meat, eggs, cereals, Intestinal Bacteria
VITAMIN K - PHYLLOQUINONE Deficiency - Hemorrhages
VITAMIN B1 - THIAMIN Functions -Maintenance of myelin sheaths, nervous system -Energy for GI tract to work -Energy for cardiovascular system to work
VITAMIN B1 - THIAMIN Sources - Liver, beef, pork, grains, legumes
VITAMIN B1 - THIAMIN Rx: alcohol-related brain disease, obesity surgery, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's.
Notes: prone to destruction by modern food processing all involved in carbohydrate metabolism B vitamins
VITAMIN B1 - THIAMIN • Deficiency - Beriberi
VITAMIN B2 - RIBOFLAVIN Functions Tissue health and growth (mucosa, epithelium, eyes), energy
urine turns bright yellow, recycles glutathione, promotes iron metabolism. VITAMIN B2 - RIBOFLAVIN
VITAMIN B2 - RIBOFLAVIN Sources -Dairy, meat, fish, poultry, green vegetables, enriched grains
VITAMIN B2 - RIBOFLAVIN Deficiency - Swollen tongue, Cracked lips/mouth corners, eyes burning, tearing, dermatitis in skin folds
VITAMIN B3 - NIACIN Functions - Coenzyme in cell metabolism/energy production (with B1, B2) DNA repair; Ca mobilization in body, glycogen production
mental disorders (Dr. Abram Hoffer), raise HDL cholesterol, tinnitus VITAMIN B3 - NIACIN Rx:
can be synthesized in the body from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin flush, non-flush niacinamide, inositol hexaniacinate VITAMIN B3 - NIACIN Notes:
VITAMIN B3 - NIACIN Sources - Meat, poultry, fish, legumes
VITAMIN B3 - NIACIN Deficiency -Pellagra: Dementia, Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Death Weakness, Poor appetite/indigestion, Disorders of skin/ nervous system
VITAMIN B5 - PANTOTHENIC ACID • Functions -Formation of Coenzyme A; carbohydrate, protein, lipid metabolism, energy•
VITAMIN B5 - PANTOTHENIC ACID - about Rx: shingles; Notes: important for basic processes of life: supports hormones and immune system
VITAMIN B5 - PANTOTHENIC ACID• Sources -Animal and plant foods
VITAMIN B5 - PANTOTHENIC ACID Deficiency - None reported
VITAMIN B6 - PYRIDOXINE • Functions -Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat metabolism, RBC formation neurotransmitter synthesis, Energy production, DNA/RNA
Caution: doses of 100 mg-500mg daily for many weeks can be toxic. Symptoms: most commonly irritated nerves are the smaller peripheral nerves of the hands and feet, which produce numbness in a "stockingglove" distribution; headache, temporary HBP vitamin B6
VITAMIN B6 - PYRIDOXINE • Sources -Liver, kidney, grains, seeds
VITAMIN B6 - PYRIDOXINE Deficiency - Microcytic Anemia, Neuritis, Hyperirritability, Convulsions rashes, fatigue, mood changes
VITAMIN B6 - PYRIDOXINE Notes: glycogen utilization GABA, dopamine, and serotonin all require vitamin B6 for synthesis needed for liver detox process
VITAMIN B12 - COBALAMIN • Functions - Blood formation Synthesis and maintenance of myelin sheaths, DNA
VITAMIN B12 - COBALAMIN Caution: folic acid supplementation can mask a B12 deficiency
VITAMIN B12 - COBALAMIN Rx: vegetarians, vegans, Macrocytic anemia, peripheral neuropathy
VITAMIN B12 - COBALAMIN• Deficiency -Pernicious Anemia, Macrocytic Anemia, neuro disorders, Sore mouth/tongue, amenorrhea, cognitive impairment
VITAMIN B12 - COBALAMIN• Sources -Animal protein: liver, kidney, lean meats, milk, eggs, cheese
VITAMIN B12 - COBALAMIN Notes: preferred forms: hydro and methyl cobalamin B12 needs HCL in stomach to free up B12 from food, and Intrinsic factor to absorb B12.
FOLATE (B9) • Functions - Synthesis of DNA RBC formation
FOLATE (B9) • Deficiency) -Macrocytic Anemia, Neural Tube Defects (NTDs
FOLATE (B9) • Sources -Green leafy vegetables, liver, yeast, legumes
BIOTIN (B7) • Functions -Metabolism of fat/synthesis of fatty acids
BIOTIN (B7) • Deficiency - Seborrheic Dermatitis, Hair loss, Fatigue, Depression
BIOTIN (B7) • Sources -Liver, egg yolk, cereals (except wheat), meats, tomatoes, yeast intestinal bacteria, pumpkin & sunflower seeds
BIOTIN (B7) Notes: Helps production of insulin, builds healthy fats in the skin
Created by: kalyana