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OTA 104 first quiz

brain injury and neuropsychology

brain injury, causes – Blow to head (MVA, assault) – Lack of oxygen (drowning) – Lack of blood (cardiac arrest, stroke) – Infection (abscess) – Accumulation of blood-ruptured artery – Lack of direct blow to head - whiplash
Types of injuries:Laceration deep cut
Types of Injuries:Contusion bruise,
Types of Injuries:Hemorrhage bleeding
Types of Injuries:Diffuse Axonal Injury shaken brain
What is muscle weakness called? peresis
What is weakness one 1 side of the body? hemiplegia
What are paralyzed muscles called? plegia
What is increased tone called? spasticity
Difficulty planning movements? apraxia
Difficulty coordinating movements? ataxia
What are some pychosocial problems caused by TBI? Personality • Frustration tolerance • Irritability • Emotional lability • Mood swings • Aggressive outbursts • Lack of interest in others • Selfishness (self centered) • Anxiety • Depression • Sexual disinhibition
Other Concerns related to TBI • Driving • Alcohol • Sex • Adjustment
What does the CNS consist of? – brain and spinal cord
What is a neuron? a nerve cell. Transmits nerve impulses
What are Dendrites? part of a neuron. tree like structures that that receive impulses from the synapse and take them to the cell body
How do neurons communicate? neuro-transmitters
describe an Axon? single, long cable
describe the synapse? site of contact where NT is passed between neurons
Myelin fatty white insulating substance that surrounds the axon of a neuron
Cerebral Cortex thin gray matter about the size of a formal dinner napkin covering the surface of each cerebral hemisphere. thought, perception and memory and serves as the seat of advanced motor function, social abilities, language, and problem solving
• Left & Right Hemispheres left hemi controls right side of body and vice versa
• Corpus Callosum bridge between r and l hemispheres
Left Hemisphere does? Comprehension & production of speech, language, reading, writing, calculation skill • Conscious, rational • Oriented to past, present, future • Logical, conservative, goal oriented
Right Hemisphere Copying, Drawing, Judging size & distance of objects • Artistic, Creative thinking processes • Unconscious, dreamlike • Spontaneous, emotional, artistic
Frontal lobes do what? Motor behavior & consciousness • Contributes to judgment, organization, planning, reasoning, personality, motivation, inhibition of behaviors. • Develops most after birth
When frontal lobes are Damaged we see what? – Disorders of movement – Apraxia – Hemiplegia • Difficulty Inhibiting behavior • Attentional problems • Behavioral inflexibility & perseveration • Socially inappropriate
Parietal Lobes do what? Processes sense of touch • Light touch, deep pressure, combination • Visual spatial information – recognize objects as same • Helps to read maps, describe how to get somewhere
Damage to parietal lobe? Impaired or loss of sensation • Clumsiness to carry out actions • Contra-lateral neglect • Language problems (alexia, aphasia) • Difficulty math • Memory • Visual spatial abilities – drawing assembling objects
Temporal Lobes Functions? Interprets senses of hearing, taste, smell • Perception visual patterns (faces) • Understand language • Store & retrieve sensory information • Labels experiences positive, negative neutral
Damage to temportal? • Auditory sensation & perception • Language disturbances • Attend auditory, visual stimuli • Impaired memory • Sexual behavior changes • Emotional experience • Personality
Occipital Lobes Functions? • Process information from eyes • Specializes in brightness, darkness, perception of edges
Damage to occipital causes? Loss of vision proportional to amount of injured tissue • “cortical blindness”
What are some Cognitive Problems caused by brain injuries? • Disorientation • Memory • Attention & Concentration • Information Processing • Perceptual Skills • Spatial, Constructional Problems • Speech & Language • Awareness, Insight
What are some Executive fxns that are made difficult due to TBI? • Goal setting • Planning • Organization • Self-Initiation • Self Evaluation & Monitoring • Flexible Problem solving
Created by: andijean1
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