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Topic 1: Hardware -Data transmission

Circuit switching Path is set up between sender and receiver and is released after transmission is complete. It cannot be used by any other traffic during that time.Data is sent in order
Packet switching Data (content) split into packets, which can take a different route through network and may arrive out of order - then re-assembled. Each packet carries the source and destination addresses.
Packet information the actual data; order number of packet; source and destination addresses; control signals; error control bits.
Why is Packet switching preferred? Better security. More efficient use of data lines - no waiting during gaps. Less likely to be affected by network failure.
Half-duplex transmission is when data can be sent in only one direction at a time.
Full duplex Data can be sent in both directions at once / simultaneously / at same time.
Simplex Data transmission is possible in one direction only.
Serial transmission occurs when binary digits (bits) are sent one by one along the data channel.
Parallel transmission occurs when a number of bits are sent simultaneously.
Why are Network protocols necessary? To specify data formats; to enable devices to communicate with each other.
Data collision occurs when two sets of data are detected on the network simultaneously. Once detected, a computer waits for a short random time then sends again.
Multiplexing is where several independent data sources are combined to be sent along a single route to a single destination.
Router is a device in a network which holds information about the addresses of computers in the network or other networks and can send data to the correct computer / network / device.
Switching prevents all data being sent to all parts of a network / makes efficient use of the data lines.
Digital transmission preference is preferred as it is less likely to suffer corruption/degradation/interference
Protocols are necessary to specify data formats, etc, to enable devices to communicate with each other.
Parallel transmission occurs when a number of bits are sent simultaneously/ sent over multiple paths / lines.
Parallel processing the simultaneous use of several processors/cores to perform a single task. It could be useful where an extremely large/complicated calculation is being carried out (e.g. weather forecasting
Benefits of digital transmission is preferred as it is less likely to suffer corruption/degradation. Can error check data. Can compress data and therefore transfer time is quicker.
Created by: mcounsell