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Grammar

English Grammar

QuestionAnswer
Form of verb that functions as a noun. (running, walking, reading, etc.) Ex. Reading is fun. Gerund
Form of verb that functions as an adjective with present tense meaning. (Technically an active participle for all verbs.) (running, walking, reading, etc.) Ex. A running man moves fast. Present Participle
Form of verb that functions as an adjective with past tense meaning. (Technically a passive participle for most verbs.) Intransitive verbs generally have an active past participle instead. (spilled, done, eaten, etc.) Ex. Spilled milk is not edible. Past Participle
Verbs that can take a direct object. Ex. I read the book. He ate the pizza. Transitive
Verbs that can not take a direct object. Ex. I went to the library. He stayed at home. Intransitive
The "to" form of the verb. (to go, to eat, to read, etc.) These function as a noun in a sentence. Ex. To read is fun. It means that this form has no information attached to it such as who? what tense?, etc. Infinitive
All forms that have no information attached to them such as who? what tense?, etc. These include infinitives, gerunds, etc. non-finite forms
This is whoever is performing the action. John is the subject in: "John reads a book everyday.". Subject
This is what or whom after the verb. This is what or whom is directly affected by the action. This is often referred to as the "victim". Book is the direct object in: "John reads a book everyday.". Direct Object
To/for what or to/for whom. This is what or whom is indirectly affected by the action. This is often referred to as the "recipient", and can be translated as a phrase with "to" or "for". Chris is the indirect object in: "John gave Chris a book.". Indirect Object
Indicates action in progress, although in English, this use is far from strictly observed. It equals the verb 'to be' in the present + a present participle (-ing form). Ex. I am reading. He is eating. Present Progressive Tense
Indicates action in progress at a time in the past, although in English, this use is far from strictly observed. It equals the verb 'to be' in the past + a present participle (-ing form). Ex. I was reading. He was eating. Past Progressive Tense
Indicates an action completed in the past. It is formed with the present tense of 'to have' + a past participle (often an -ed form). Ex. I have read. He has eaten. We have baked it. Present Perfect Tense
Also Pluperfect. Indicates an action completed in the past before another past action (past of the past). It is formed with the past tense of 'to have' + a past participle (often an -ed form). Ex. I had read. He had eaten. We had baked it. Past Perfect Tense
Indicates an action that will be completed in the future. It is formed with the present tense of 'will' (or 'is going') + 'have (infinitive - 'to')' and a past participle (often an -ed form). Ex. I will have read. He will have eaten. Future Perfect Tense
Normal mood of statements. (Indicates real stuff). Indicative Mood
Indicates non-real or contrary to fact statements or requests. If I were you.... (I'm not you.) He asks that you be here. (Not 'are here'). Subjunctive Mood
Indicates statements that are predicated or conditioned on some other event or condition. English uses the verb form "would" to realize this mood. If he were here, he would eat everything. Conditional Mood
These are pronouns that indicate or demonstrate things. They are this, that, these, those, and are often followed by the word one(s). Demonstrative Pronoun
These are adjectives that indicate or demonstrate things. They are this, that, these, those. Demonstrative Adjective
These are pronouns that refer to a specific person or oject. They are I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, them, etc. Personal Pronouns
These are pronouns that refer back to the subject of the sentence. In English, they always have 'self'/selves attached. They are myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. I bought myself a book. He woke himself up. Reflexive Pronouns
Also 'emphatic pronoun', intensifies or emphasizes a person, object or pronoun. They end in 'self/selves'. They are myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. I myself bought a book. He built the house himself. Intensive Pronoun
They are nouns that refer to multiple objects/people but are followed by a singular verb. (group, class, clothing, etc.) Ex. The clothing is in fashion. The group is here. Collective Noun
This is any noun or phrase that restates another. It is always set off with commas. Ex. John, the man with the bag, is my brother. My friend, Sara, is coming over. Apositive
Created by: QuizMaster
 

 
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