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WVSOM GI

Nueral/Hormonal Control, Motility I and Motility II

QuestionAnswer
The parasympathetic system usually has what effect on the GI system stimulatory
The sympathetic system usually has what effect on the GI system inhibitory
The enteric nervous system is also known as what intrinsic
Name the layers if the duodenum from the lumen out Lumen - mucosa - muscularis mucosa - submucosa - muscluaris externa - serosa
What is another name for the myenteric plexus Auerbachs
What is another name for the Submucosal plexus Meissners
Sympathetic usually enter the enteric nervous system via what type of fibers Post-ganglionic
Parasympathetics enter the enteric nervous system via what type of fibers Preganglionic
Which plexus, meissners or auerbachs deals more with movement Auerbachs
Any fiber that leaves the enteric nervous systme is what type of fiber postganglionic
What are the classic excitatory nuerotransmitters ACh and Substance P
What are the classic inhibitory nuerotranmitters VIP and NO
What is a long relfex A reflex that travels back to the CNS on an afferent nerve fiber, and then back to the gut on an efferent nerve fiber
What is a short reflex This is a reflex that takes place in the gut wall
What is a short relfex also known as Intramural or local
What nerve are the afferent and efferent signals carried on Vagus!!!!
Can post ganglionic sympathetic nerves fire directly on effector cells YES
Do preganglionic parasympatheic nerves ever fire directly onto the effector cells NO
What is the sole hormone released in the antrum of the stomach Gastrin
What hormone is released all the way through the Duodenum and Jejunum and tappers off in the illeum CCK
What two hormones are only released in the duodenum and jejunum GIP and Motilin
Eating a meal will inhibit the action/release of what hormone Motilin
Nerves, chemicals, distention and/or stretch will release which two hormores Gastrin and Motilin
What is the most powerful releaser of CCK FAT!
Protein releases which two hormones Gastrin and CCK
Which hormone becomes inhibited by acid Gastrin
Which hormone is stimulated by the release of acid Secretin
The vagus fires ganglia which release ACh onto which 4 cell types G-cells, ECL's, Chief Cells, and Parietal Cells
G-cells secrete Gastrin which stiulates which two cells ECL and Parietal
Cheif cells release what Pepsinogen
Pariental cells release what Intrisic Factor (IF and H+)
What is zolinger elasin the development of a gastric secreting tumor in the pancreas
Which hormone is relased cyclic every 90 min motilin
CCK acts to contract which organ Gall bladder
Secretin has a negative/inhibitory effect on which two cells G-cells and Parietal cells
What does secretin trigger the release of HCO3- (Bi-carb)
CCK causes the release of what BILE from the gallbaldder and Bi-carb and pancreatic enzymes from the pancreas
Somatostatin does what Stops all secretions!
GIP inhibtis which two cell types G-cells and Parietal cells
What does GIP cause the release of Insulin from the pancreas
Pancreatic Polypeptide cuases a decrease in the secretion of what Pancreatic Bicarb and enzymes
Peptide YY does what Decreases Gastric secretion and emptying
What peptide does the same thing as peptide YY but also causes insulin release enterglucagon
Where are all the patterns for motility programmed Enteric nervous system
Can the programmed patterns of motility be effected by nerves and hormones YES
What is physiological ileus The absence of motility along the intestine in which the quiescene of motor funtion neurally programmed
What would happen if you got a had a block of the enteric nervous system Disorganized and nonpropulsive contractile behavior occuring CONTINUOUSLY!
Do inhibitory neurons need to be turned on or off in order for the circular muscle outside of the sphinters to contract OFF
Lack of contraction is caused by the inhibitory neurons being active or inactive active
What happens to protect the nasopharynx during swallowing Soft palate moves close off opening
What needs to happen in order to seal off he trachea during swallowing Upward movement of the glottis and downward movement of the epiglottis
Pressures in the body of the espohgus reflect what intrathoracic or intrabdominal
Between swallows the pressures of what structures lie above atmospheric pressure Upper esophogeal sphincter, lower esophogel sphincter
The pressure at the sphincters during a swallow goes up, down or stays the same down
The pressure in the espohpgus during a swallow goes up, down or stays the same up
Which esophogeal sphicter is associated with the myenteric plexus Lower
What would ultimatley send an inhibitory signal to the lower esophogeal sphincter Distention and/or vagus firing
Does the myenteric plexus exist in striated muscle NO
In which region (upper or lower) of the esophogus do you have the vagus firing DIRECTLY onto muscle Upper (lower uses myenteric)
What occurs in the stomach in order to move food toward the sphincter, but eventually overtakes the bolus and sends some of it back towards the orad portion low amplitude waves (3-5/min)
What are the interstital cells of Cajal pacemakers
Can slow waves cause contracion YES, if a spike potential exist to make the wave big enough
Where do slow waves begin and end mid stomch to the colon
What influences have an effect on the slow wave frequncey tempurature and metabolic activity
what infuences have only MINIMAL effects on the slow waves, but can cause changes in the plateau hormones and nerves
Would firing from the sympathetics cause an increase, decrease or have no effect on the slow waves decrease
Is the MMC (migrating motor complex) a fed or fasted state occurance fasted (2-3 hours post-meal)
ncreasing which three hormones will increase contractility Gastrin, CCK, and motilin
What is the intestino-intestinal relfex If a area of the bowel is really distended, conractal activity of the rest of the bowel is inhibited
Illieal distention will have what effect on the ileo-colic sphincter relaxation
Colic distention will cause what effect on the ileo-colic sphincter contraction
Relaxation of what structure allows for recpetors to be able to tell the nature of the contents in the the canal internal anal sphincter
Increase in food amount will cause an increased or decrease response at the internal and external anal sphincters increase
Created by: lowryc