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Neuro 360 Final G$

Neuro 360 Final

QuestionAnswer
What is another name for the inerventricular foramen? Foramen of Monro
What is another name for the lateral apertures? Foramina of Luschka
What is another name for the median aperture? Foramen of Magendie
What is a cistern? Enlarged portion of subarachnoid space that contains: arteries/veins, roots of crainal nerves, and CSF
Where is the cisterna magna? Posterior to the medulla and directly caudal of the cerebellum
Where is the quadrigeminal cistern? Posterior to the midbrain and directly rostral of the cerebellum
Where is the interpeduncular cistern? Directly rostral to the pons on the anterior side
Describe the flow of CSF from its formation to its absorption. Produced in the choroid plexus of the lateral and third ventricles ... Cerebral aqueduct ... fourth ventricle ... outlet formina ... subarachnoid cisterns ... subarachnoid space ... superior sagittal sinus ... absorbed through arachnoid villi
What do you call a group of cell bodies? a ganglion
What is the difference between the meninges of the brain and spinal cord? The spinal cord has an epidural space (mostly comprised of fat) between the bone and dura mater.
What are the small transverse ligaments that hold the spinal cord in place at each vertebrae? dentate ligaments
What is the tip of the spinal cord called? conus medullaris
What is the extension of the pia mater called (almost like seran wrap)? filum terminale
What level of the spinal cord is the conus medullaris? b/n L1 and L2
What three things are found in the dural sac? cauda equina, filum terminale, CSF (lumbar cistern)
What is the difference between number of spinal cord segments and vertebral segments? One more spinal cord segment because the spinal cord segments are numbered as the segment directly below each vertebral segment and then there is one above the C1 vertebral segment as well?
Name the two fissures of the spinal cord. Anterior median fissure ... posterior median sulcus
Name the two sulci of the spinal cord. anterolateral sulcus ... posterolateral sulcus
Which laminae are found in dorsal horn? Ventral horn? 1-6 in dorsal; 7-9 in ventral
What is the dividing point between open and closed medulla? obex
What is the dividing line between medulla and pons? foramen of Luschka
What makes up the diencephalon? thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus, and epithalamus
What are the two structures that make up the epithalamus? pineal body and habenula
What is the name of the structure that divides the anterior and lateral portions of the thalamus? internal medullary lamina
Are the mammillary bodies part of the hypothalamus? Yes
What structure is directly above the substantia nigra? subthalamic nucleus
How do you know if you are looking at the posterior limb or anterior limb of the internal capsule? If you can see thalamus, you are looking at the posterior limb of the internal capsule.
Name the capsules moving from internal and going lateral. internal capsule, external capsule, claustrum, extreme capsule
Name the two subdivisions of the corpus striatum functionally. pallidum (globus pallidus) and striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen)
Name the two subdivisions of the corpus striatum structurally. caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus (putamen and globus pallidus)
What structure is lesioned when you have Parkinson's disease? What are the signs/symptoms of Parkinson's disease? substantia nigra // hypokinesia (bradykinesia, akinesia); stooped, slow gait; mask-like face; tremor at rest; rigid muscles
What structure is lesioned when you have Huntington's disease? What are the signs/symptoms of Huntington's disease? striatum // hyperkinesia (chorea and athetosis)
What are the signs and symptoms of subthalamic lesions? hyperkinesia (hemiballismus or ballismus)
What are the functions of the basal ganglia? Instrumental in the initiation of voluntary movements and the control of postural adjustments associated with voluntary movements.
Explain the difference between intracortical fibers, association fibers, commisural fibers, and projection fibers. Intracortical - local area (don't leave cortex) ... Association - can leave cortex but always in same hemisphere ... commisural - cross over midline ... projection - leave brain to go to other areas (corticofugal - brain output; corticopetal - brain input
Name the three association fiber bundles and what they connect. Superior longitudinal fasciculus connects all lobes by wrapping around the lateral fissure; inferior occiptofrontal lobe connects the occipital lobe and the frontal lobe; uncinate fasciculus hooks around to connect frontal and temporal lobes
What is the cingulum? An association fiber bundle that connects the medial parts of all hemispheres.
What are the two commisural fiber bundles? corpus callosum and anterior commissure (connects temporal lobes)
What are the four parts of the corpus callosum? rostrum, genu, body (trunk), and splenium
What are the three projection fiber bundles? internal capsule, corona radiata, optic radiations
What are the six layers of the cerebral cortex called? 1 - molecular; 2 - external granular; 3 - external pyramidal; 4 - internal granular; 5 - internal pyramidal; 6 - multiform
Name the functions of cerebral cortex layers 1-6. 1 - intracortical fibers; 2 - info coming from commisural/association fibers; 3 - output through association and commisural fibers; 4 - all sensory input (corticopetal); 5 - all brainstem, spinal cord output (corticofugal); 6 - output to thalamus
Explain the cortical sections on the parietal lobe. the intraparietal sulcus divides the superior parietal lobule from the inferior parietal lobule; the inferior parietal lobule is divided into two gyri: the supramarginal gyrus (more anterior) and the angular gyrus (more posterior)
When looking at a midsaggital slice, what are the two coronal sections that make up the occipatal lobe? What is the sulcus that divides these two? cuneus (more superior) and lingual gyrus (inferior); calcarine sulcus
Looking at the ventral side of the brain, name the gyri and sulci starting and moving lateral. parahippocampal gyrus, collateral sulcus, occipitaltemporal gyrus, occipitaltemporal sulcus; inferior temporal gyrus
What is the part of the parahippocampal gyrus that is medial? uncus (there's an uncus amungus!)
Which gyrus is located deep in the brain next to the lateral fissure and insula? transverse temporal gyri
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the premotor (and supplementary motor) cortex? apraxia (inability to plan motor movements)
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the primary motor cortex? specific paralysis/paresis
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the primary somatosensory cortex? specific loss of tactile and position senses
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the parietal association cortex? astereognosis, neglect syndrome
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the visual association cortex? visual agnosia
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the primary visual cortex? specific visual field deficits
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to wernicke's area? receptive aphasia
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the inferolateral temporal cortex? prosopagnosia, loss of visual memories, etc.
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the primary auditory cortex? loss of sound localization
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the gustatory cortex? ageusia
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to broca's area? expressive aphasia
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the orbitofrontal cortex? unstable emotions, unpredictable behavior
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex? impaired concentration, initiative, judgment, problem solving
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the anterior and ventromedial temporal cortex? loss of memory, abnormal emotion, and visceral activity (associated with the hippocampus and limbic system)
What are the Broca's numbers that we need to know and which cortices do they correspond to? primary somatosensory cortex (3,1,2); primary motor cortex (4); premotor cortex (6); primary visual cortex (17); visual association cortex (18,19)
What does the lateral motor nucleus of each spinal cord section control? cervical - muscles of arm, forearm, and hand; thoracic - no LMN; lumbar - muscles on front of leg and top of foot; sacral - muscles of back of leg and bottom of foot
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the oculomotor nucleus? ptosis (droopy eye); mydriasis (dilated pupil); eye down and out; opthalmoplegia (paralysis of ocular muscles)
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the trochlear nucleus? extorsion, difficulty looking down and in; head tilt to side of lesion (CONTRALATERAL)
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the trigeminal motor nucleus? paralysis of muscles of mastication; difficulty chewing; jaw deviation toward side of lesion
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the abducens nerve? esotropia
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the facial nucleus? paralysis of muscles of facial expression, lack of lacrimation, lack of salivation, hyperacusis
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the ambiguus nucleus? vocal muscle paralysis, sagging of palatal arch, contralateral deviation of uvula, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the hypoglossal nucleus? tongue atrophy, deviation to side of lesion
What cranial nerves are entirely sensory 1 (olfactory), 2 (optic), and 8 (vestibulocochlear)
What is the difference between alpha motor neurons and gamma motor neurons? alpha innervate extrafusal fibers; gamma innervate intrafusal fibers
What are the general functions of the myotatic reflex? the inverse myotatic reflex? What types of neurons are involved with their pathways? Are they monosynaptic or disynaptic? Myotatic - "relaxes antagonist muscle so that contracting mucle works better"; Ia receptor; monosynaptic // Inverse myotatic relfex (the Golgi tendon reflex) - "prevents too much tension to prevent tear/strain"; Ib receptor; disynaptic
What two areas house the cell bodies (or are the origins) of the corticospinal tract? dorsal half of precentral gyrus and anterior paracentral lobule
What are the signs/symptoms of a lesion of the corticobulbar tract above caudal pons? below caudal pons? contralateral lower facial muscle paralysis; no obvious signs
What is the difference between a nuclear lesion and an infranuclear lesion? nuclear lesion is a lesion of a LMN cell body; infranuclear lesion is a lesion of a LMN axon
What is the difference between decorticate and decerebrate posture? Which one results from damage above the red nucleus versus damage at and below the red nucleus? Decorticate: upper limbs flexed; lower limbs extended (above red nucleus); Decerebrate: upper and lower limbs extended (below red nucleus)
Which cranial nerves do corticobulbar axons not innervate? 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
Where is the location of the lesion in a capsular stroke? alternating hemiplegia? internal capsule; brain stem
What are the three principal brain stem centers that influence spinal motor activity? vestibular nuclear complex; nuclei in reticular formation; red nuclei
Following a pyramidal tract lesion of the internal capsule, which functions recover and which do not? only functions that are solely dependent on corticospinal tract (rapid and ind. finger movements) don't recover; neck and trunk movements recover quickly because the main control occurs via ventromedial descending pathways
Name the anatomic, phylogentic, and functional names of all three cerebellar lobes. flocculonodular lobe = archicerebellum = vestibular cerebellum; anterior lobe = paleocerebellum = spinal cerebellum; posterior lobe = neocerebellum = cerebral cerebellum
What is the midline of the cerebellum called? the vermis
Which cerebellar peduncles are involved in input/output? inferior cerebellar peduncle = chiefly input; middle cerebellar peduncle = solely input; superior cerebellar peduncle = chiefly output
Name the three deep cerebellar nuclei moving laterally to midline. dentate nucleus, interposed nuclei, fastigial nucleus
Trace the path of info from association cortex back to motor cortex via the posterior cerebellar lobe association cortex; corticopontine fibers; internal capsule; cerebral crus; pontine nuclei; transverse pontocerebellar fibers; MCP; dentate nucleus; SCP; dentatothalamic fibers; thalamus; thalamocortical fibers; motor cortex
What are the major functions of the cerebellar posterior lobe? planning movements before executing them; learning and storage of skilled motor movements
What are the signs/symptoms of posterior lobe syndrome of the cerebellum? ataxia (esp. distal muscles); intention tremor, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia; explosive speech
What tract synapses in the dorsal thoracic nucleus of clark? the accessory cuneate nucleus? Where dot the tracts go after this synapse? gracile fasciculus synapses in Dorsal thoracic nucleus of Clark and then the dorsal spinocerebellar tract ascends to the anterior lobe of the cerebellum; the cuneate fasciculus synapses in the accessory cuneate fasciculus and then to the anterior lobe
Which of the two deep cerebellar nuclei send output to the red nucleus? to the vestibular nuclei? the interposed nuclei sends output to the red nucleus via the SCP; the fastigial nuclei sends output to the ICP via the vestibular nuclei
What are the major functions of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum? monitor ongoing movements; make adjustments
What are the signs/symptoms of anterior lobe syndrome of the cerebellum? ataxia (esp. lower limb); gait ataxia
What three cranial nerves are influenced by the vestibular nuclei (think vestibuloochlear reflex)? CN III, IV, and VI
What are the major functions of the flocculonodular lobe of the cerebellum? align trunk with head; adjust eye position
What are the signs/symptoms of flocculonodular lobe syndrome of the cerebellum? truncal ataxia
What are the crossing over fibers called immediately after synapses in the gracile/cuneate nuclei? internal arcuate fibers
What specific nerves contain axons of primary somatosensory neurons? CN 5, 7, 9, 10
What are the dermatomes we need to know for this class? C2 - back of head; C5 - shoulder; C6 - thumb; C7 - mid. finger; C8 - pinky; T4/5 - nipples; T10 - umbilicus; L1 - linguinal ligament; L4/5 - big toe; S1 - pinky toe; S5 - perianal region
What is the slow pain pathway responsible for (in the Study Objectives, it says to know this question but not any more of the details than this)? arousal, attention, emotional, and motivational aspects of pain
What are the signs/symptoms of lesions in the optic nerve? optic chiasm? optic tract, LGN, entire optic radiation, or entire visual cortex? blindness in damaged eye; bitemporal heteronymous hemianopsia (tunnel vision); contralateral homonymous hemianopsia
What are the signs/symptoms of damage to the dorsal optic radiation or cuneus? The ventral optic radiation or lingual gyrus? What is another name for the ventral optic radiation? contralateral homonymous anopsia in the inferior quadrant; contralateral homonymous anopsia in the superior quadrant; Loop of Meyer
What are the minor relay stations of the auditory system? nuclei of the trapezoid body; superior olivary nuclei; nuclei of the lateral lemniscus
Trace the path from cochlear nuclei to the primary auditory cortex. cochlear nuclei; trapezoid body; lateral lemniscus; inferior colliculus; brachium of the inferior colliculus; MGN; auditory radiation
On what gyri will you find the primary auditory cortex? transverse temporal gyri
What is another name for the medial vestibulospinal tract? medial longitudinal fasciculus
What are the three cranial nerves involved in taste and what parts of the mouth do they cover? facial nerve (anterior 2/3 of tongue); glossopharyngeal nerve (back of tongue); vagus nerve (rest of oral cavity)
What nucleus of the thalamus is taste information collected in? ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM)
What are three sources of sensory information that contribute to equilibrium? vestibular, proprioception, vision
What are the two parts of the cortex that make up the primary gustatory cortex? parietal operculum and insula
What does anosmia mean? loss of smell
What are the four parts of the fornix? (start at the hippocampus and work towards mammillary bodies) fimbria, crus, body, column
What are the subdivisions of the hippocampus (going ventral to dorsal)? entorhinal cortex; subiculum; hippocampus proper; dentate gyrus (creamy middle of cinnamon roll)
What are the subdivisions and functions of the amygdala (going medial to lateral)? corticomedial nuclei (receives smell input); central nucleus (output); basolateral nucleus (receives all other sensory input)
What are the target, origin and functions of the norepinephrine system? target: virtually the entire CNS; origin: locus ceruleus; functions: arousal, sleep-wake cycle, attention, learning and memory, mood
What are the target, origin and functions of the serotonin system? target: virtually the entire CNS; origin: raphe nuclei; functions: sleep-wake cycle, mood and emotional behavior, inhibit pain perception
What are the target, origin and functions of the acetylcholine system? target: cerebral cortex; origin: basal nucleus of meynert; functions: modulate cortical excitability, memory and learning
What are the target, origin and functions of the dopamine (nigrostriatal) system? target: striatum; origin: substantia nigra; functions: initiate and modulate movement
What are the target, origin and functions of the dopamine (mesocorticolimbic) system? target: nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex; origin: ventral tegmental area of the midbrain; functions: reward and pleasure (motivation)
Name the three subsections of the hypothalamus on a midsaggital slice. chiasmatic (anterior), tuberal (medial), mammillary (posterior)
Name the three subsections of the hypothalamus on a coronal slice. lateral zone (the axons of this zone are called the "medial forebrain bundle), medial zone, periventricular zone
Where are the outputs of the sympathetic nervous system? Where are the origins? Outputs are in the thoracic and lumbar sections of the spinal cord; origins are in the lateral horn of the thoracic spinal cord
Where are the outputs of the parasympathetic nervous system? Where are the origins? Outputs are in the brainstem and sacral sections of the spinal cord; origins are in the sacral autonomic nucleus (S2-S4 only) as well as CN III, VII, IX, and X
Created by: marchantg13