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Hematology

RBC Morphology, Anemia, Hemoglobinopathy

QuestionAnswer
Normal size of RBC 6.8 to 7.5 micrometer
Poikilocytosis many shapes.
Acanthocyte multiple thorny, spike like irregularly
Blister Cell Pyknocytes. one or more vacuoles.
Burr Cells Echinocytes. RBC with one or more knobby projections.
Ellliptocytes sausage or rod shaped.
Helmet Cells Schizocyte. larger scopped out part. ruptured blister
Schistocyte fragment.
Sickle cell depanocyte. crescents
Spherocyte compact and very round
Stomatocytes Slit like opening resembles a coffee bean.
Target Cells Codocytes. Bulls eye
Teardrop Dacryocyte. teardrop
Basophilic stippling Tiny, round dark granules. associated with lead poisoning and sever anemias
Cabot rings Loop shaped inclusions. remnants of mitotic spindles.
Heinz bodies Denatured hemoglobin. Hemolytic anemia, G6PD deficiencies and hemolytic anemia
Howell-Jolly Bodies Small with only 1-2 per cell DNA remnants.
Pappenheimer bodies Siderotic granules. iron inclusions.
Ziemanns stippling Dust fine pink dots in malaria
Hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC counts Decreased
Shift to the left Increase in immature cells
Chronic blood loss results in hypochromic,microytic cells
Aplastic anemia hypoproliferative disorder of pluripotiential or erythroid stem cells
Fanconi's Anemia form of aplastic anemia. Inherited autosomal recessive gene.
Iron Deficiency Anemia Hemoglobin, hematocrit decreased.
Megaloblastic Anemia Absence of B12 and folic Acid
Megloblastic anemia lab findings hemoglobin low. MCV and MCH increased. Macrocytes, ovalocytes, hyperseg
Shillings test evidence of impaired B12 absorption correctly by intrinsic factor.
Osmotic Fragility Test Phospholipid bilayer of the rbc membrane. hypotonic solution.
Hemolytic anemias common anti u, anti lw, anti kell, jak or fya
hemoglobinopathy genetic disorder. most caused by a single amino acid substitution. abnormal molecular structure
Examples of hemoglobinopathys sickle cell and thalasemias
Normal adult hemoglobin levels HbA-95%, HbA2 2%,HbA1 3%, HbF less then 1%
Sickle cell Genetics AS-trait. ss-disease. Substitution of valine for glutamic acid in the 6th position.
Benefit of having the sickle cell trait less chance for malaria parasite P. falciparum
Patients with sickle disease have 80% Hbs and HbF up to 20%
Sickle C disease absence of HbA. Presence of hemoglobin S and C
Thalassemia imbalance of globin chains available for hemoglobin dimer construction.
Beta Thalassemia single gene , beta chain disorder on chromosome 11. increased retics,bilirubin, iron and TIBC, HBF
Beta Thalassemia minor trait. mild anemia
Beta Thalassemia major Cooley's Anemia. Severe anemia. ineffective erythropoeisis.
Alpha Thalassemia deletions that remove one or both alpha globin genes from chromosome 16. 4 types. Found in S. Asia, Middle East.
Hemoglobin H Disease Alpha Thalassemia. 3 inactive genes. 4-30% HbH on electrophoresis.
Hydrops Fetalis with Hb Barts. Alpha Thalassemia. four inactive genes.
Hemoglobin E Disease Results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid on the beta globin chain on the 26 position.
Cells in chronic anemias appear hypochromic and microcytic
Characteristically found on a smear peripheral smear in a case of anemia poik, bao stippling, pappenheimer bodies,cabot rings, heinz bodies.
RBC of 9 micometers and MCV of 104fl Macrocyte
Inclusion of DNA remnant Howell-Jolly Body
Common cause of hyochromic anemia Iron deficiency anemia
Microcytosis in reflected by Decreased MCV
glycolytic enzyme deficiency associated with Pentose Phosphate pathway. aerobic pathway G6PD
Megaloblastic anemia findings maco-ovalocytes,Hyperseg neuts,Howell-Jolly bodies
Sleep associated blood in the urine and intravascular hemolysis Paroxymal Noctural Hemoblobinuria
Thalassemia described as abnormal rate of globin chain synthesis
Megloblastic abnormal marrow erthrocyte resulting in macrocytes
AOI/ACD inflammation or chronic disorder
Hereditary Spherocytosis inherited hemolytic anemia/membrane defect
Autoimmune hemolytic increase RBC destruction due to antibodies bound to RBC
Embden-Meyerhof Pathway Major source of cellular energy. net gain 2 atp.
Luebering Rapoport Pathway Oxygen carrying capacity of and rbc
MCV average volume of rbc hct/rbc count
MCH Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin hemoglobin/rbc count
MCHC hemoglobin concentration hemoglobin/hct
Created by: Kateskate