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Anat/Phys Exam 3

psychologist manages depression and grief that might accompany a velopharyngeal-nasal disorder
plastic surgeon surgically repairs and/or reconstructs parts of the body
prosthodontist constructs prostheses to replace missing body parts
neurologist diagnoses diseases of the nervous system
otorhinolaryngologist oversees medical team for clients with cleft palates and other craniofacial disorders
speech language pathologist evaluates velopharyngeal competence for speaking and swallowing
vallecula cavity on the outside of the epiglottis
pyriform sinus cavity on the outside of the arytenoids
passavant's pad bulges the posterior wall of the pharyngeal cavity, pushes posterior wall forward
salpingopharyngeus long very slender slip off muscle similar to the stylopharyngeus
salpingopharyngeus origin inferior border of the medial aspect of the cartilage at the orifice of the auditory tube (external auditory meatus)
salpingopharyngeus insertion courses vertically to blend with fibers of the palatopharyngeus muscle
salpingopharyngeus function draws the lateral walls of the pharynx upward and medially (gag reflex)
stylopharyngeus long slip of muscle which courses downward along the side of the pharynx and finally enters between the superior and middle constrictors
stylopharyngeus origin medial side of the base of the styloid process of the temporal bone
stylopharyngeus insertion into the superior and middle constrictors, superior horn of the thyroid cartilage
stylopharyngeus function elevation of the pharynx and larynx, dilation (opening) of the pharynx
superior pharyngeal constrictors weakest but most complex of pharyngeal muscles, consists of four muscle bundles
muscle bundles of superior pharyngeal constrictors pterygopharyngeal, buccopharyngeal, mylopharyngeal, glossopharyngeal
pterygopharyngeal muscle originates from the lower third of the medial pterygoid plate and from its hamular process
buccopharyngeal muscle originates from the pterygomandibular raphe (division of the buccinators muscle and the pharyngeal constrictor musculature)
mylopharyngeal muscle arises from the posterior part of the mylohyoid line and the adjacent alveolar process of the mandible
glossopharyngeal muscle originates from the sides of the tongue
middle pharyngeal constrictors fan shaped, composed of two groups of muscle fibers
two groups of muscle fibers of the middle pharyngeal constrictors ceratopharyngeus and chondropharyngeus
ceratopharyngeus muscle arise from the superior border of the greater horn of the hyoid bone
chondropharyngeus muscle arises from the lesser horn of the hyoid bone and from the stylohyoid ligament
inferior pharyngeal constrictors thickest and strongest of the pharyngeal muscles, arises from the lamina and superior horn of the thyroid cartilage, substantial part is continuation of sternothyroid muscle
pharyngopalatine (palatopharyngeus) muscle origin soft palate
pharyngopalatine (palatopharyngeus) muscle insertion blends into the stylopharyngeus muscle, which terminates at the posterior border of the thyroid cartilage, forms the pharyngopalatine arch which comprises the posterior faucial pillars
pharyngopalatine (palatopharyngeus) muscle function acts to guide the bolus into the lower pharynx, also acts as a sphincter by decreasing the distance between the posterior faucial pillars
glossopalatine origin anterior surface of the soft palate
glossopalatine insertion into the sides of the tongue, resulting in the anterior faucial pillars
glossopalatine function depresses the soft palate
uvular origin nasal spines of the palatine bone
uvular insertion into the uvula
uvular function shortens and lifts the soft palate
tensor palatine origin base of the medial pterygoid plate
tensor palatine insertion into the palatal aponeurosis and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone
tensor palatine function flattens, tenses, and lowers the soft palate
levator palatine origin apex of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and the medial plate of the cartilaginous framework of the Eustachian tube
levator palatine insertion into the palatine aponeurosis (meets with fellow from the opposite side)
levator palatine function lifts the soft palate upward and backward
styloid process on temporal bone serves as the site of origin for three muscles (stylopharyngeus, styloglossus, and stylohyoideus)
tympanic on temporal bone helps to form the anterior wall, floor, and part of the posterior wall of the external auditory meatus
petrous on temporal bone located at the base of the skull between the sphenoid and occipital bones, it houses the essential parts of the organs of equilibrium and hearing
mastoid on temporal bone provides attachment for sternocleidomastoid&other neck muscles,at medial limit is mastoid notch(forms a point of attachment for the digastric muscle), also contributes to the formation for the tympanic cavity and external auditory meatus
squamous on temporal bone forms the later, anterior, and upper part of the temporal bone, the main landmarks of the squamous portion is the zygomatic process which joins the temporal process of the zygomatic bone to form the zygomatic arch
temporal bone parts squamous, mastoid process, petrous, tympanic, styloid process
occipital bone parts foramen magnum
foramen magnum divides occipital into portions, marks the junction of the spinal cord and brain and transmits the vertebral and anterior spinal arteries
occipital bone portions squamous, basilar and two condylar
crista galli on ethmoid bone thick, triangular process that projects upward from the front midline portion of the cribriform plate, it serves as the anterior attachment for a fold of the dura mater that separates the cerebral hemispheres
cribriform on ethmoid bone serves as a partition separating the cranial from the nasal cavities and forms the roof of the nasal cavities
perpendicular plate (vertical plate) on ethmoid bone joins with the frontal and nasal bones with the cartilaginous septum of the nose and the vomer
ethmoidal labyrinth on ethmoid bone forms the lateral walls of the upper part of the nasal cavity which are thin bones with scroll like extensions, i.e., the superior and middle nasal conchae
vomer makes up the inferior half of the bony septum, articulates with many structures
vomer articulates maxillae and palatine bones inferiorly, perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the rostrum of the sphenoid bone superiorly, cartilaginous septum of the nose anteriorly, posterior border is free
nasal conchae inferior, middle, superior
inferior concha makes up the inferior most part of the lateral nasal wall, articulates anteriorly with the maxilla and posteriorly with the palatine bone, inferior border forms the lateral and superior boundaries of the inferior nasal meatus
lacrimal bones smallest of the facial bones and form part of the medial wall of the orbital cavity, has an orbital and nasal surface, articulates with frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, and inferior nasal concha
zygomatic bone malar or cheek bone, has four processes, zygomatic arch
four processes of zygomatic bone frontosphenoidal, orbital, maxillary, temporal
zygomatic arch zygomatic, along with the zygomatic processes of the maxilla and temporal bones
nasal bones 2 oblong plates that form the bridge of the nose
intrinsic muscles of the tongue superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, transverse, vertical
extrinsic muscles of the tongue genioglossus, styloglossus, palatoglossus, hyoglossus
hyoglossus origin upper border of the greater cornu and from the corpus of the hyoid bone
hyoglossus insertion lateral submucous tissue of the posterior half of the tongue
hyoglossus function retracts and depresses the tongue or may elevate the hyoid bone
palatoglossus may be considered either as a muscle of the tongue or the palate
palatoglossus origin anterior surface of the soft palate
palatoglossus insertion into the sides of the tongue
palatoglossus function may either lower the soft palate or raise the back of the tongue (forms the anterior faucial pillars)
styloglossus origin from the anterior surface of the styloid process
styloglossus insertion some fibers enter the side of the tongue and enter into the inferior longitudinal muscle while the remainder overlap and blend with the hyoglossus
styloglossus function draws the tongue upward and backward (true antagonist of the genioglossus), it may also draw the sides of the tongue upward
genioglossus forms the bulk of the tongue tissue
genioglossus origin mental tubercle on the posterior surface of the mandibular symphysis
genioglossus insertion the lower fibers go to the hyoid bone while the remainder radiate fan like into the submucous tissure from the root to the tip on either side of the midline
genioglossus function the posterior fibers draw the whole of the tongue anteriorly to protrude the tip from the mouth and contraction of the anterior fibers retracts the tongue
vertical origin originates from the mucous membrane of the dorsum of the tongue
vertical insertion inferior surface of the tongue
vertical function flattens the tongue
transverse origin from the median fibrous spetum
transverse insertion submucous fibrous tissue at the lateral margins of the tongue
transverse function narrows and elongates the tongue
inferior longitudinal located on the under surface of the tongue
inferior longitudinal origin root of the tongue
inferior longitudinal insertion apex of the tongue
inferior longitudinal function either shortens the tongue or it may pull the tip downward
superior longitudinal lies just deep to the mucous membrane of the dorsum of the tongue
superior longitudinal origin from submucous fibrous tissue close to the root of the tongue
superior longitudinal insertion anterior edges of the tongue
superior longitudinal function shortens the tongue or it may turn the tip and lateral margins upward
biological functions of the tongue taste, mastication, deglutition
parts of the tongue tip, blade, front, back
function of the hyoid bone part of axial skeleton, supportive structure for root of tongue, e.g., inferior attachment for the bulk of the tongue musculature, the superior attachment for some extrinsic laryngeal muscles, either the origin or insertion point for 22 or 23 muscles
extrinsic muscles transverse, angular, vertical
transverse muscles buccinator and risorius
angular muscles levator labii superior, zygomatic (minor and major), depressor labii inferior, levator labii superior alaeque nasi
vertical muscles mentalis, depressor anguli oris, levator anguli oris
levator anguli oris flat, triangular muscle located above the angle of the mouth
levator anguli oris origin the canine fossa on the superficial surface of the maxilla
levator anguli oris insertion into the upper lip and the lower lip at an angle
levator anguli oris function draws the corner of the mouth upward and assists in closing the mouth
depressor anguli oris flat triangular sheet of muscles
depressor anguli oris origin arises from the oblique line of the mandible
depressor anguli oris insertion into the orbicularis oris at angle of the mouth
depressor anguli oris function either depresses the angle of the lip or assists in compression of the lips by drawing the upper lip downward
mentalis small bundle of fibers
mentalis origin from the mandible in the region of the mental tuberosity
mentalis insertion into the chin and orbicularis oris
mentalis function wrinkles the chin and everts the lower lip
levator labii superior alaeque nasi origin frontal process and infraorbital margin of the maxilla
levator labii superior alaeque nasi insertion courses downward and divides into two slips, one inserting into the lateral cartilaginous framework of the nose and the other into the orbicularis oris
levator labii superior alaeque nasi function elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils
depressor labii inferior small, flat, quadrangular muscle located beneath the lower lip, lateral to midline
depressor labii inferior origin arises from the oblique line of the mandible near the mental foramen
depressor labii inferior insertion corner of the mouth
depressor labii inferior function draws the lower lip downward and laterally
zygomatic (minor and major) long, slender muscles
zygomatic (minor and major) origin arises from the malar (facial) surface of the zygomatice bone
zygomatic (minor and major) insertion into the orbicularis oris and into the corner of the mouth
zygomatic (minor and major) function draws the angle of the mouth upward and laterally (grinning/smiling)
levator labii superior principle elevator of the upper lip
levator labii superior origin frontal process and infraorbital margin of the maxillae
levator labii superior insertion orbicularis oris
levator labii superior function raises the upper lip
risorius origin originates from a fascia covering the masseter muscle
risorius insertion most fibers insert into the skin and mucosa at the corner of the mouth (a few blend with muscles of the lower lip)
risorius function helps draw the mouth angle laterally
buccinators principle muscle of the cheek
buccinators origin primary origin is from the pterygomandibular ligament
buccinators insertion enters the corner of the mouth, upper lip, and lower lip
buccinators function upon contraction it compresses the lips and cheeks against the teeth and draws the corners of the mouth laterally
orbicularis oris an unpaired oval ring of muscle fibers located within the lips
orbicularis oris function a sphincter muscle which when contracted closes the mouth and puckers the lips
Created by: wilder10



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