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Exam 3 Genetics

TermDefinition
Backcrossing mating of a hybrid to a purebred of a parent breed or line
Repeated Backcrossing/Introgression Mating system used to incorporate an allele(s) existing in one population into another population. An initial cross is followed by successive generations of backcrossing combined with selection for the desired allele(s)
Grading Up/Topcrossing To convert a population from one breed to another by mating to purebred sires
Random Mating -chose mate at random -occurs after selection - different from random selection
Positive Assortative mating mating of similar individuals -good at changing pop mean -dont use for intermediates
Negative assortative mating mating of dissimilar individuals -decreases variation -not good for changing pop -good uniformity for intermediates
Assortative mating -produces more variation -tends to produce extremes
corrective mating a type of negative assortative to correct parents faults in progeny
Complementarity type of corrective mating that results in breeding two complementary types to produce better offspring
Maternal breed a breed that excels in maternal traits of fertility, freedom from dystocia, milk production, mothering ability
Paternal breed breed that excels in paternal traits such as meat quality and carcass yield
Terminal sire cross-breeding system in which maternal-bred females are mated to paternal-breed sires to produce market offspring. All offspring are sold
Inbreeding mating of animals that are more closely related than the average of the population from which they came; increases homozygousity
Prepotency ability of an individual to produce offspring that resemble it; caused by inbreeding
Inbreeding Depression the expression of unfavorable recessive alleles influencing polygenic traits
Hybrid vigor/heterosis an increase in the performance of hybrids over that of purebreds, most noticeably in traits like fertility and survivability; increases GCV; may be (-)
Inbreeding Coefficient (Fx) the probability that both genes of a pair in an individual are identical by descent; measured for a pop at a particular time
Wright's Coefficient of Relationship (Rxy) the correlation between the BVs of 2 individuals due to pedigree relationship alone;
Line breeding mild form of inbreeding;
Outbreeding mating of individuals that are less related than the average pop; increases heterozygosity; can get HV
Individual Hybrid Vigor caused by the direct component(the effect of an individual's genes on its performance) of the trait
Maternal Hybrid Vigor the effect of the genes on the environment provided by the dam
Paternal hybrid vigor the effect of the genes on the environment provided by the sire
retained hybrid vigor hybrid vigor that remains in later generations of hybrids
composite animal a hybrid with at least two and typically more breeds in its background; expected to be bred to own kind
composite breed a breed made up of two or more component breeds and designed to benefit from hybrid vigor without crossing with other breeds
composite system a mating system limited to matings within a single composite breed
spatial rotation breeding systems in which generation of females are "rotated" among breed sires whose breed comp is most different from their own
rotations in time system in which sire breeds are not used simultaneously but are introduced in sequence
terminal sire system where maternal-breed females are mated to paternal-breed sires to produce progeny that are desirable to the market; does not create replacements
Created by: aly486