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CUT5 9.3

Computers: Understanding Tech 5e 9.3

TermDefinition
network sniffer A software package that displays network traffic data and can be used to spy and monitor, or to prevent unauthorized activity.
ActiveX A type of program that runs on a web page after downloading itself to the hard drive of the user. Such controls can be useful, but they pose a security risk.
phishing filter An antiphishing tool that works by comparing a site’s URL to a list of known phishing sites and alerting the user if there’s a match. This tool also scans the pages you visit for suspicious signs that a site might not be legitimate.
virus signature A tell-tale string of characters that can be used to identify a particular virus.
rotating backup A backup plan that rotates through a set of backup media. For example, a company might have seven backup sets, one for each day. On each Monday, the administrator overwrites the previous Monday backup with the new one.
incremental backup A backup that includes only the files that have changed since the last backup of any kind.
differential backup A backup that includes only the files that have changed since the last full backup.
backup appliance A special computer system that’s designed specifically for performing and storing backups.
deduplication Operations that reduce the amount of redundancy in a backup set by not backing up identical copies of certain folders and files multiple times.
disaster recovery plan A plan that explains how a company should restore its systems after a complete loss of data.
authentication The process of positively identifying a user. Forms of authentication include personal identification numbers (PINs), user IDs and passwords, smart cards, and biometrics.
strong password A password that’s hard to guess.
smart card A plastic card, similar to a credit card, that contains stored information in a computer chip inside it.
biometric identifier A physical attribute that’s unique to an individual and can be used to authenticate identity, such as a fingerprint or a retinal pattern.
fingerprint scanner A security device that authenticates users by scanning a fingerprint and comparing it to a database of fingerprints of authorized users.
hand geometry system A biometric authentication system that determines a person’s identity by measuring the dimensions of the person’s hand, which are unique to each individual.
computerized facial recognition (CFR) A biometric authentication system that recognizes a human face by comparing it with facial images in a database.
iris recognition A biometric authentication system that uses the unique patterns formed from the measurement of hundreds of details about a user’s irises.
retinal recognition system A biometric authentication system that uses as identifiers the unique patterns of blood vessels found on the backs of eyeballs.
voice verification system A biometric authentication system that recognizes individuals by measuring the pitch and timbre of their voices.
signature verification system An authentication system that works by comparing a scanned-in handwritten signature against signatures in a database to determine if it is a forgery or authentic.
encryption A data security method that involves scrambling information so the data is unreadable until it is decrypted (unscrambled).
ciphertext Encrypted text.
encryption key An algorithm that dictates how data will be encrypted and is used to break the encryption code and read the information. An encryption key is generated automatically and shared between two computers that wish to communicate.
secret key encryption Encryption in which both parties use the same encryption key to encrypt and decrypt the data. Also called private key encryption.
public key encryption An encryption method that uses two encryption keys: a public encryption key, which all authorized users know, and a secret encryption key, which only the sender and the receiver know.
RSA Named for its developers: Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman. A popular public encryption technology used to transmit data over the Internet.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) A cryptographic protocol that provides secure communications on the Internet for transmitting data such as that used in credit card activities, emails, faxes, and banking transactions.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) The successor to SSL, originally released as an upgrade to SSL.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) A secure form of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that provides encryption for data sent through a web-based connection.
Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) A protocol for transmitting data securely over the World Wide Web, designed to transmit individual messages securely.
auditing A review of monitoring data and system logins to look for unauthorized access and suspicious behavior.
Created by: softcrylic