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ODW 1.4

Our Digital World 1.4

TermDefinition
data Raw facts; what you put into a computer. 
information Raw facts that are processed, organized, structured, or presented in a meaningful way; what you get out of a computer.
information processing cycle A cycle of handling raw data and information that has four parts: input of data, processing of data, output of information, and storage of data and information.
binary system A system consisting of two possible values, 0 and 1, called binary digits, or bits. 
bit The smallest unit a computer can understand and act on. An abbreviation for binary digit. 
binary digits A value in the binary system, either 1 or 0.
byte A collection of 8 bits. 
input Data that is entered into a computer or other device, or the act of reading in such data. 
central processing unit (CPU) The part of your computer system that interprets instructions and processes data. Also referred to as the processor or core. 
processing The manipulation of data by the computer to create information. 
microprocessor A computer chip that can accept programming instructions that tell a computer what to do with the data it receives. 
computer memory Temporary storage areas on your computer, including random access memory (RAM) and cache memory. 
random access memory (RAM) A holding area for data while your computer processes information. When you turn your computer off, the data temporarily stored in this holding area disappears; RAM is therefore also referred to as volatile memory. 
volatile memory A type of computer memory whereby stored instructions and data are lost if the power is switched off.
cache memory A memory area, located on or near the microprocessor chip, for the most frequently used data. 
output The information that results from computer processing or the act of writing or displaying such data. 
resolution A measurement of the number of pixels on a screen.
pixel A single point in an image; short for picture element. 
storage A permanent recording of information, data, and programs on a computer’s storage medium, such as a magnetic disk or optical disc, so that they can be retrieved as needed.
cloud storage Services that allow users to store documents and other files online.
file A computer’s basic storage unit, which might contain a report, spreadsheet, or picture, for example. 
DRAM (dynamic random access memory) The type of memory most commonly found in computers, and works quickly, is compact, and affordable. Requires electricity and is fragile, meaning that the data held in RAM must constantly be refreshed. 
SRAM (static random access memory) A type of memory that is about five times faster than DRAM. Though dependent upon electricity, this type of memory does not require constant refreshing and is more expensive than DRAM. It is therefore often used only in cache memory applications. 
SDRAM (synchronous dynamic ran-dom access memory) An updated version of DRAM, which provides significant improvements in access speed. Most modern computer memory is some variation of SDRAM, including DDR-SDRAM, DDR2-SDRAM, and DDR3-SDRAM. 
machine cycle A cycle a CPU goes through when handling an instruction; a process in which four basic operations are performed: (1) fetching an instruction, (2) decoding the instruction, (3) executing the instruction, and (4) storing the results. 
instruction register A holding area on your computer where instructions are placed after the fetch portion of the machine cycle is completed. 
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) A computer code that numerically represents letters in the English alphabet to enable the transfer of text between computing devices.
Unicode An encoding standard used to represent different languages and scripts by assigning each letter, digit, or symbol a unique numeric value. This value is applied across different platforms and is recognized internationally.
Created by: softcrylic