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Wiles-Nucleic Acids

Burris--Nucleic Acids--Modules 11 & 12 Review

Nitrogen bases that have one ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms are called _____. pyrimidines
What is the first step of DNA replication? Helicase unwinds or "unzips" the DNA molecule by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases
The spiral staircase shape of DNA is referred to as a(n) ________________. double helix
The point at which the 2 strands of DNA separate during replication is called the _______. replication fork
What is another term for a protein? polypeptide chain
What is the general ending for an amino acid? -ine
Where does transcription occur in a eukaryotic cell? nucleus
What are the 3 types of RNA? messenger (mRNA); transfer (tRNA); and ribosomal (rRNA)
Where does tRNA acquire the amino acids that it brings to the ribosome? cytoplasm or the amino acid pool within the cytosol
How many codons are possible when combining the 4 nitrogen bases of mRNA? 64
If 1 DNA molecule replicates 5 times, how many DNA molecules will there be when done? 32
What enzyme in DNA replication brings in complementary nitrogen bases and joins them to make a new strand? DNA polymerase
Transcription continues one nucleotide at a time until the RNA polymerase reaches a DNA region called the ________. termination signal
What does a lethal mutation mean? There is a change in the DNA sequence that will cause death.
What one factor determines the shape of a protein? the sequence of amino acids
After DNA is proofread and repaired, the error rate is usually 1 error per ____ nucleotides. one billion
Is DNA right or left twisted? right
Where are hydrogen bonds in a molecule of DNA? holding the nitrogen bases together
Wht is the start mRNA codon? AUG
What type of RNA carries genetic information on protein making from the DNA in the nucleus to a ribosome? mRNA
If a DNA molecule is 20% guanine, what is the percentage of the other three nitrogen bases individually? 20% cytosine, 30% adenine, and 30% thymine
The start codon codes for what amino acid? methionine
What is the general ending for an enzyme's name? -ase
What function is carried out by those few codons that do NOT code for an amino acid? to stop translation
True or false. Every body (somatic) cell in an organism should have the same exact DNA. true
What process name studied in chapter 10 literally means "to write across" when translated from Latin? transcription
What is the site called in transcription which marks the beginning of the DNA chain that will be transcribed? promoter site
Give three structural differences between DNA and RNA. DNA is two stranded while RNA is only 1 stranded; the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose while the sugar in RNA is ribose; and in DNA adenine bonds with thymine while in RNA there is no thymine. Rather, adenine bonds with uracil.
True or false. When replication is completed, 4 new exact copies of the original DNA molecule is produced. false
What is the name of the primary enzyme in transcription? RNA polymerase
True or false. An amino acid may be coded for by more than one codon. true
True or false. Replication of a eukaryotic organism's DNA begins at one end of the molecule and proceeds to the other end. false
Who first published a paper proposing a model for the structure of DNA? Watson and Crick
In what year was the first paper published suggesting a mdoel for DNA? 1953
What is the name of the sugar in DNA? deoxyribose
What are the four nitrogen bases of DNA by name? adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
Three tRNA nucleotides comprises a(n) ____. anticodon
Where are the proteins which are exported from a cell produced? ribosomes on the surface of the rough ER
Each strand of DNA serves as a pattern or a _____ in building complementary strands during replication. template
What process copies genetic information from DNA to RNA? transcription
Where does translation occur in a eukaryotic cell? ribosome
The process of assembling proteins from information encoded in mRNA is called ____. translation
By name, what are the four nitrogen bases of RNA? adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine
What are the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide? sugar (deoxyribose); phosphate group; and a nitrogen base
What type of bond holds amino acids together in a protein? peptide bond
What type of a bond connects the sugar and phosphate backbone of DNA? covalent bond
What 2 substances comprise DNA's backbone? sugar and phosphate
Three mRNA nucleotides is called a(n) ___. codon
What cellular organelle is the site of protein synthesis? ribosome
Give the complementary base pairing rules for DNA. A-T and G-C
mRNA codons are UAAUGC. What is the sequence of the DNA template from which it was produced? ATTACG
How many different amino acids are possible? 20
A change in the DNA nucleotide sequence is called a(n) _____. mutation
Give the complementary base pair rulings for RNA. A-U and G-C
What does RNA stand for? Ribonucleic acid
If a mRNA sequence is UAAUGC, what are the 2 anticodons of tRNA? AUUACG
What is the name of the sugar in RNA? ribose
Where in a cell does DNA replication occur in a eukaryote? nucleus
The process of copying DNA in a cell is called ______. replication
If one strand of DNA is ATTCGC, what is the sequence of the other DNA strand? TAAGCG
What are the simple units (monomers) of proteins called? amino acids
What does DNA stand for? deoxyribonucleic acid
What enzyme causes the 2 strands of DNA to separate during replication? helicase
Name the 2 pyrimidines of DNA. cytosine and thymine
What scientist primarily conducted the X-ray diffraction photographs such as Photo 51 that were used to indicate DNA's structure? Rosalind Franklin
What amino acid is found in large quantities in turkey meat? It is responsible for making you sleepy after your big Thanksgiving feast. tryptophan
Name the 2 purines of DNA. adenine and guanine
Nitrogen bases that have 2 rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms are called _____. purines
Why is double helix a good term to describe the structure of DNA? there are two strands twisted together
What amino acid can PKU patients not break down? phenylalanine
What type of RNA is globular in shape? rRNA
What type of RNA is a long strand? mRNA
What type of RNA does the book describe as a hairpin shape? tRNA
Give two locations for ribosomes in a eukaryotic cell. Floating freely in the cytoplasm or attached to the outer surfaces of rough ER
DNA comprises genes which in term comprises chromosomes. How many chromosomes should there normally be within the body (somatic) cells of humans? 46
Frederick Griffith was trying to develop a vaccine against what virulent bacteria? Streptococcus pneumoniae. The bacteria that causes the lung disease pneumonia in animals.
What did Hershey and Chase conclude in their experiments? DNA is the hereditary molecule in viruses
What did Oswald Avery conclude in his experiments? DNA is responsible for transformation in bacteria
What is a virus that invades bacteria called? bacteriophage
What does transformation mean? Transfer of genetic material from one cell to another or from one organism to another organism
What are the monomers of DNA and RNA? Nucleotides
How many hydrogen bonds form between cytosine and guanine? 3
Where does DNA replication occur in a prokaryote? in the cytoplasm
What three scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their work on the structure of DNA? Watson, Crick, and Wilkins
What scientist determined the complementary base pairing for DNA? Erwin Chargaff
Adenine and thymine pair to each other by how many hydrogen bonds? 2
How many carbon atoms does deoxyribose and ribose contain? 5 because these sugars are pentoses
The two DNA strands run in opposite strand is oriented from 5 prime to 3 prime while the opposite strand is oriented 3 prime to 5 prime. What term refers to this description? antiparallel orientation
What is meant by semiconservative replication? Parental strands of DNA separate, both serve as templates, and produce DNA molecules that have one strand of parental DNA and one strand of new DNA
When does DNA replication occur during the cell cycle? the S phase of interphase
During DNA replication, RNA primase adds a short segment of RNA on each strand called a(n) ______. RNA primer
What is a replication fork? The separation of the two single strands of DNA creates a 'Y' shape called a replication 'fork'
The lagging strand of DNA during replication is replicated discontinuously. What are the small segments called which are formed during this discontinuous replication? Okazaki fragments
What enzyme connects the Okazaki fragments during replication? DNA ligase
What is the number and orientation of chromosome(s) in a eukaryote? multiple linear chromosomes
What is the number and orientation of chromosome(s) in a prokaryote? single circular chromosome
What type of RNA transport amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis? tRNA
What type of RNA is a component of a ribosome? rRNA
What type of RNA carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm? mRNA
True or false? The Human Genome Project , which started in 1990, was never completed. False. The Human Genome Project was completed in April 2003.
HeLa cells are named for what person? Henrietta Lacks
What are body cells known as? Somatic cells
True or false? Somatic cell mutations are passed on to the next generation, False. Sex cell or germ cell mutations are passed on to the next generation but somatic cell mutations are NOT passed on to the next generation.
Substances which cause mutations are called ________. mutagens
Name two common mutagens. Certain chemicals in the environment and high energy forms of radiation such as X-rays
What type of mutations are known as frame shift mutations? Deletion and insertion mutation
For a eukaryote, where does replication and transcription occur in a cell? In the nucleus
Created by: lburris
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