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Burris-Nucleic Acids

Burris--Nucleic Acids--Chapter 10 Review

QuestionAnswer
Nitrogen bases that have one ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms are called _____. pyrimidines
What is the first step of DNA replication? Helicase unwinds or "unzips" the DNA molecule
The spiral staircase shape of DNA is referred to as a(n) ________________. double helix
The point at which the 2 strands of DNA separate during replication is called the _______. replication fork
What is another term for a protein? polypeptide chain
What is the general ending for an amino acid? -ine
Where does transcription occur in a eukaryotic cell? nucleus
What are the 3 types of RNA? messenger (mRNA); transfer (tRNA); and ribosomal (rRNA)
Where does tRNA acquire the amino acids that it brings to the ribosome? cytoplasm or the amino acid pool within the cytosol
How many codons are possible when combining the 4 nitrogen bases of mRNA? 64
If 1 DNA molecule replicates 5 times, how many DNA molecules will there be when done? 32
What enzyme in DNA replication brings in complementary nitrogen bases and joins them to make a new strand? DNA polymerase
Transcription continues one nucleotide at a time until the RNA polymerase reaches a DNA region called the ________. termination signal
What does a lethal mutation mean? There is a change in the DNA sequence that will cause death.
What one factor determines the shape of a protein? the sequence of amino acids
After DNA is proofread and repaired, the error rate is usually 1 error per ____ nucleotides. one billion
Is DNA right or left twisted? right
Where are hydrogen bonds in a molecule of DNA? holding the nitrogen bases together
Wht is the start mRNA codon? AUG
What type of RNA carries genetic information on protein making from the DNA in the nucleus to a ribosome? mRNA
If a DNA molecule is 20% guanine, what is the percentage of the other three nitrogen bases individually? 20% cytosine, 30% adenine, and 30% thymine
The start codon codes for what amino acid? methionine
What is the general ending for an enzyme's name? -ase
What function is carried out by those few codons that do NOT code for an amino acid? to stop translation
True or false. Every body cell in an organism should have the same exact DNA. true
What process name studied in chapter 10 literally means "to write across" when translated from Latin? transcription
What is the site called in transcription which marks the beginning of the DNA chain that will be transcribed? promoter site
Give three structural differences between DNA and RNA. DNA is two stranded while RNA is only 1 stranded; the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose while the sugar in RNA is ribose; and in DNA adenine bonds with thymine while in RNA there is no thymine. Rather, adenine bonds with uracil.
True or false. When replication is completed, 4 new exact copies of the original DNA molecule is produced. false
What is the name of the primary enzyme in transcription? RNA polymerase
True or false. An amino acid may be coded for by more than one codon. true
True or false. Replication of DNA begins at one end of the molecule and proceeds to the other end. false
Who first published a paper proposing a model for the structure of DNA? Watson and Crick
In what year was the first paper published suggesting a mdoel for DNA? 1953
What is the name of the sugar in DNA? deoxyribose
What are the four nitrogen bases of DNA by name? adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
Three tRNA nucleotides comprises a(n) ____. anticodon
Where are the proteins which are exported from a cell produced? ribosomes on the surface of the rough ER
Each strand of DNA serves as a pattern or a _____ in building its complementary strand. template
What process copies genetic information from DNA to RNA? transcription
Where does translation occur in a eukaryotic cell? ribosome
The process of assembling proteins from information encoded in mRNA is called ____. translation
By name, what are the four nitrogen bases of RNA? adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine
What are the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide? sugar (deoxyribose); phosphate group; and a nitrogen base
What type of bond holds amino acids together in a protein? peptide bond
What type of a bond connects the sugar and phosphate backbone of DNA? covalent bond
What 2 substances comprise DNA's backbone? sugar and phosphate
Three mRNA nucleotides is called a(n) ___. codon
What cellular organelle is the site of protein synthesis? ribosome
Give the complementary base pairing rules for DNA. A-T and G-C
mRNA codons are UAAUGC. What is the sequence of the DNA template from which it was produced? ATTACG
How many amino acids are possible? 20
A change in the DNA nucleotide sequence is called a(n) _____. mutation
Give the complementary base pair rulings for RNA. A-U and G-C
What does RNA stand for? Ribonucleic acid
If a mRNA sequence is UAAUGC, what are the 2 anticodons of tRNA? AUUACG
What is the name of the sugar in RNA? ribose
Where in a cell does DNA replication occur? nucleus
The process of copying DNA in a cell is called ______. replication
If one strand of DNA is ATTCGC, what is the sequence of the other strand? TAAGCG
What are the simple units (monomers) of proteins called? amino acids
What does DNA stand for? deoxyribonucleic acid
What enzyme causes the 2 strands of DNA to separate during replication? helicase
Name the 2 pyrimidines of DNA. cytosine and thymine
What scientist primarily conducted the X-ray photographs that were used to indicate DNA's structure? Rosalind Franklin
What amino acid is found in large quantities in turkey meat? It is responsible for making you sleepy after your big Thanksgiving feast. tryptophan
Name the 2 purines of DNA. adenine and guanine
Nitrogen bases that have 2 rings of carbon and nitrogen atoms are called _____. purines
Why is double helix a good term to describe the structure of DNA? there are two strands twisted together
What amino acid can PKU patients not break down? phenylalanine
What type of RNA is globular in shape? rRNA
What type of RNA is a long strand? mRNA
What type of RNA does the book describe as a hairpin shape? tRNA
Give two locations for ribosomes in a eukaryotic cell. Floating freely in the cytoplasm or attached to the outer surfaces of rough ER
DNA comprises genes which in term comprises chromosomes. How many chromosomes should there normally be within the body cells of humans? 46
Frederick Griffith was trying to develop a vaccine against what virulent bacteria? Streptococcus pneumoniae. The bacteria that causes the lung disease pneumonia in animals.
What did Hershey and Chase conclude in their experiments? DNA is the hereditary molecule in viruses
What did Oswald Avery conclude in his experiments? DNA is responsible for transformation in bacteria
What is a virus that invades bacteria called? bacteriophage
What does transformation mean? Transfer of genetic material from one cell to another or from one organism to another organism
What are the monomers of DNA and RNA? Nucleotides
Created by: lburris