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WVSOM -- Physio

WVSOM -- Neural and Hormonal control of the GI system

QuestionAnswer
GRP Grastrin Releasing Peptide Releases Gastrin
Action of Gastrin Stimulates gastric acid secretion Growth of gastric oxyntic gland mucosa
Gastrin site of release Antrum (duodenum)
Releaser of Gastrin Amino Acids Distention Vagal Stimulation
CCK Cholecystokinin
CCK stimulates Gallbladder contraction Pancreatic enzyme secretion Pancreatic bicarb secretion Growth of exocrine pancreas Pepsin secretino
CCK inhibits Gastric emptying
CCK site of release duodenum and jejunum
What releases CCK? Peptides Amino Acids Fatty acids > 8carbons
Secretin stimulates? pancreatic bicarbonate secretion biliary bicarbonate secretion Growth of exocrine pancreas Pepsin secretion
Secretin inhibits? Gastric acid secretion Trophic effect of gastrin
Secretin is released ? duodenum
What causes release of secretin? acid (fat)
What does GIP stimulate? Insulin release
What does GIP inhibit? gastric acid secretion
What does GIP stand for? Gluco-dependant Inuslotropic Peptide Gastric Inhibitory Peptide
Motilin stimulates? Gastric motility Intestinal motility
Motilin is released at duodenum and jejunum
What causes release of motilin nerves (fat and acid)
What are neurocrins? located in nerves and released into the blood to affect distant target tissue
What are the 4 neurocrines? VIP GRP enkephalins neurotensin
VIP vasoinhibitory peptide both stimulatory and inhibitory secretion Inhibits gastric secretion causes relaxation of GI smooth muscle
GRP Gastrin-releasing peptide
What nerves release GRP? Vagus
What is GRP's action? Gastrin release
Enkephalins opiates decrease motility and decrease intestinal secretion
What common disorder are enkephalins good for? diarrhea
Neurotensin increases blood glucose by stimulating glycogenolysis and glucagon release INHIBITS insulin release
Paracrines somatostatin histamine
Somatostatin Inhibits everything
Histamines Induce parietal cells comes from ganglia
Candidate Hormones Pancreatic polypeptide Peptide YY Enteroglucagon
Pancreatic polypeptide Decreases pancreatic bicarb and enzyme secretion. Released by protein, fat and glucose
Peptide YY Inhibits gastric secretion and emptying Released by fat
Enteroglucagon Inhibits gastric secretion and emptying Stimulates insulin release Released by Hexose and Fat
How are the distal rectum and anal canal innervated sympathetic fibers from the hypogastric plexus
Parasympathtic nerves _____________ the GI. stimulate
Sympathetic nerves _____________ the GI. inhibit
SNS ____________ sphincters contracts
SNS _________ tone/motility of the GI. decreases
PNS _________ sphincters. relaxes
PNS ______________ of smooth muscle of the GI. increases motility
Can the enteric nervous system function independently? yes
What modulates enteric output? extrinsic nervous system
Enteric nervous system Subdivision of peripheral nervous system that directly controls the GI system.
Extrinsic nervous system Everything outside the enteric nervous system
Parasympathetic pre-ganglion synapse onto _________ enteric ganglion
Post-ganglionic nerves from the enteric nervous system synapse __________. on target cells and other enteric nerves.
Anything leaving the enteric nervous system is ______________. post-ganglionic
3 types of post-ganglionic nerves leaving the enteric system. post-ganglionic parasympathetic post-post-ganglionic sympathetic post-enteric
What are the two main plexus found in the GI myenteric and submucosal
Where is myenteric plexus located? just under the longitudinal muscle
Where is the submucosal plexus found? Just under the circular muscle
Myentery plexus innervates ____________. Outer muscles
Submucosal plexus innervates _____________. Crypts and villi.
What kind of information is carried on the vagus nerve? afferent and efferent
The classic exitatory neurotransmitters are ACH and Substance P
The classic inhibitory neurotransmitters are VIP and NO
VIP is located exclusively within nerves
Two reflexes in the GI Vasovagal Reflex local/intramural reflexes
Vasovagal reflex afferent information goes from gut to CNS then efferents return to the GI to correct the situation
Local reflexes and intramural reflexes occur only in the gut wall
Hormonal control of teh GI tract cell-cell autorcine paracrine nervous endocrine neuroendocrine
Cell-cell control thru gap junctions
autocrine control cell secretes a hormone that regulates itself
paracrine target cell is near signaling cell
Nervous control of the GI neuron releases thru a synapse to target cell
Endocrine control endocrine cell releases hormone to blood stream then goes to target cell
Neuroendocrine control Nerve releases hormone to bloodstream then goes to target cell
Distension inhibits gastrin
Protein stimulates Gastrin CCK GIP
Fat stimulates CCK GIP
Acids/Fatty Acids stimulate Secretin
Acids/fatty acids inhibit Gastrin
Glucose stimulates GIP
Motilin is released cyclically every 90 minutes during fasting
What inhibits motilin? mixed meal
ECF enterochromaffin-like cells release histamine
Zollinger Ellison Gastrin secreting tumors in the pancreas
Created by: tjamrose