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Chapter 7 Vocab

Ellis Island An immigration station in the New York Harbor. Clean. Organized.
Angel Island An immigration station in the San Francisco Bay. Gross. Not as organized.
Melting Pot A mixture of people from different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and cultures.
Nativism Favoring the interests of native-born people over foreign-born people.
Chinese Exclusion Act A law, enacted in 1882, that prohibited all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials from entering the United States.
Gentlemen's Agreement A 1907-1908 agreement between the U.S. and Japanese governments to limit Japanese immigration to the United States.
Urbanization The growth of cities.
Americanization Movement Education program designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture.
Tenement A multifamily urban dwelling, usually overcrowded and unsanitary.
Mass Transit Transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes.
Social Gospel Movement A 19th century reform movement based on the belief that Christians have a responsibility to help improve working conditions and alleviate poverty.
Settlement House A community center providing assistance to residents- particularly immigrants- in a slum neighborhood.
Jane Addams One of the most influential members of the movement. Founded the Hull House in Chicago.
Political Machine An organized group that controls a political party in a city and offers services to voters and businesses in exchange for financial and political support.
Graft The illegal use of political influence for personal gain.
Boss Tweed William M. Tweed. Head of Tammany Hall, New York City's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Led the Tweed Ring in 1869 and 1871.
Patronage An officeholder's power to appoint people- usually those who have helped him or her get elected- to positions in government.
Civil Service A nonmilitary branch of government administration.
Rutherford B. Hayes President elected in 1876. Republican. Couldn't convince the Congress to support reform, so he used other means.
James A. Garfield An Ohio Congressman also a presidential candidate.
Chester A. Arthur Vice-President of Garfield. A Conkling's supporter.
Pendleton Civil Service Act A law, enacted in 1883, that established a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to government jobs by means of the merit system.
Grover Cleveland The first Democratic Party's candidate to win a presidential election in 28 years. He tried to lower tariff rates, but Congress refused to support him.
Benjamin Harrison Grandson of President William Henry Harrison. His campaign was financed by large contributions from companies that wanted tariffs even higher than they already were. Took a majority of the electoral votes and the presidency.
Created by: Haley.Brinkman