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Speech Science

06 Physiological Acoustics- Respiration

3 Speech Production Components 1)Power Supply (the lungs) 2)Sound Source (vocal folds 3)System of Valves (articulators)
Speech Production Processes *Respiration *Phonation *Articulation/Resonance
Mesurement of sound pressure micro pascales uPa/cm2
Mesurement of air pressure cm H2O
What is used to measure Barometric Pressure? Barometer
What is used to measure air Pressure? Manometer
What sections of body participate in respiratory function? Thorax & abdomen
Pulmonary System *Upper Airways = nose, mouth, throat, & larynx *Lower Airways = trachea
2 types of respration 1) Quiet/Reflexive Respiration *Quiet Inspiration and Quiet Expiration 2) Active Respiration
Function of the diaphragm in quiet inspiration *responsible for 75% of the muscular effort *pulls lungs down, increasing their vertical dimension
Function of the external intercostals in quiet inspiration -responsible for 25% of the muscular effort -muscles found in spaces between ribs; raises each rib below
Negative Alveolar Pressure -By increasing the size of the lungs, a partial vacuum is formed. This creates Negative Alveolar Pressure -Air rushes into the lungs to equalize the air pressure
Quiet Expiration *non-muscular *When inspiratory muscles relax, the stretched lungs return to their normal resting size due to elasticity. *Thus, air expires due to the elastic recoil of the lungs
Active Respiration *When you exercise conscious control of your respiratory system. *greater amount of air is inhaled *faster intake of air *more muscle groups involved *e.g.sucking through a straw , blowing up a balloon ,blowing out a candle,playing a wind instrument
Muscles of Active Inspiration -diaphragm, external intercostals, and 9 different sets of muscles can be involved. Ex: Pectoralis0, Sternocleidomastoid , Latissimus Dorsi , Subclavius
Active Expiration Used whenever expiratory demands are greater than can be achieved by the elastic recoil of the lungs alone
Muscles of Active Expiration *involves 9 sets of muscles, including Internal Intercostals and a variety of Abdominal muscles
Relaxation Pressure The pressure produced entirely by the elastic recoil of the lungs (non-muscular)
When are expiratory muscles used in respiration? Any time the task requires more air than can be provided by relaxation pressure
When are inspiratory muscles used in expiration? Any time the tasks demands LESS air than is provided by relaxation pressure. Slows down the rate of air coming out. Used for conversation speech, singing etc...
The only time expiratory muscles are used during speech is when... the air flow demands are greater than can be produced by relaxation pressure.
2 situations when expiratory muscles are used in speech 1)Near the second half of an utterance, if the speaker chooses to finish a long sentence without pausing to take a breath 2)If the speaker shouts or talks louder than usual
Created by: aramos139