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CD 3301

Study Guide for Exam 2 - Includes Images

QuestionAnswer
The principle biological function of the larynx is protective device for the lower respiratory tract
the principle non-biological function of the larynx is sound production
The larynx acts as a valve to perform some functions prevent air from escaping the lungs, prevent foreign substances from entering the lungs, allowing forceful expulsion of foreign substances (coughing)
the supportive framework of the larynx is hyoid bone
The main reason why the larynx raises up is because hyoid bone pulls it up
Larynx is made up of two muscle groups, what are the functions of these two groups? extrinsic - depresses/elevates intrinsic - opening/closing in the larynx, lengthening/shortening of the vocal folds
What action does the arytenoids do? rock to either side, causing the vocal folds to come apart and back together
Which structure(s) of the larynx are associated with being, 'blueish-whiteish translucent, as we age get yellowish/cloudy, tendency for it to ossify with aging?' Hyaline - thyroid (1- largest of the 9), cricoid (1), arytenoid (2), corniculate (2), cuneiform (2)
Which structure(s) of the larynx are associated with being, 'yellow/opaque, kind of rubbery/flexible and consisting of collagen that rarely ossifies?' Elastic - epiglottis (1)
The thyroid lamina fuses together to form... or incomplete fusion of thyroid lamina results in a prominent... Angle of the thyroid (AKA laryngeal prominence, laryngeal eminence) - , 'V' in shape
The cricoid cartilage consists of two parts anterior arch and the posterior quadrate lamina
Shortening of the vocal folds causes the pitch to go down
Cricothyroid joint participates in lengthening of the vocal folds causes the pitch to go up
the cricoid arch permits the thyroid/cricoid to rotate about an axis to the joint. The thyroid cartilage/cricoid cartilage can also rock back and forth
The inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage will fit into the facets(connecting location) on either side of the cricoid arch
Two joints involved in raising and lowering the vocal folds cricoarytenoid & cricothyroid
The ______ is central to alternating pitch. cricothyroid joint
The ______ serves as a point of attachment for the longitudinal muscle (length of the esophagus) fibers of the esophagus. cricoid
The ______ is a hexagonal plate that extends upward to occupy much of the space between the posterior margins of the thyroid cartilage. cricoid laminae
The ______ sets on the trachea, travels down to the lung. ______ in the lungs are like little white balls. cricoid, Alveoli
The vocal fold attaches to the _______ process and the ______ process/ligament on the arytenoid. This is also considered 2 parts of the vocal folds. muscular(musc. attaches to musc. part), vocal (vocal attaches to vocal part)
The muscular process of the arytenoid cartilages present a concave and rounded articular facet on its undersurface for articulation with the cricoid cartilage
The _____ cap the apex of the arytenoids. ______ meaning horn like in shape, thought to serve as a protective function at some point in time, but no useful right now. corniculate cartilages, corniculate
______ is made of a mucus membrane and they enclose ligaments and muscle fiber. They extend from sides of the epiglottis to the apex's of the arytenoid cartilages. They act like a wall to protect food and drink from going down into the glottis. aryepiglottic
In terms of ______ their covered in fat tissue with a mucus membrane. They lend support to the epiglottis folds, help them to stiffen folds or give the folds structure. cuneiform
The ______ is a flexible, leaf-like structure composed of elastic and fibroelastic cartilage. Behind the root of the tongue starting here. epiglottis
the diarthrodial joint permits certain amount of gliding and rocking motion.
If adduction means closure of the vocal folds and abduction means opening of the vocal folds. What is the term to describe the position halfway between opened and closed? Paramedical
The _____ may put constraints on the gliding movement. Extending from the posterior surface of the superior margin of the cricoid lamina to the base of the posterior surface of the arytenoid cartilage. posterior cricoarytenoid ligament
The _____ dictate or control the primarily rotational movement. The rotational/gliding movement places the vocal folds under increased tension, thus causing an increase in the pitch of the voice. capsular ligament, small oval articular facets located on either side of the arch of the cricoid cartilage.
The extrinsic laryngeal membranes connect the laryngeal cartilage with the adjacent structures
The _____ appears to be suspended by the hypothyroid membrane that fits between superior thyroid cartilage and the inferior portion of the hyoid bone. The membrane is thickened towards the middle at the thyroid notch. Larynx
The lateral hyoid ligament, connects the ______ and _______. greater horn of hypoid, superior horn of the thyroid cartilage.
A cartilage located inside the lateral hyoid ligament, ______, about the size of a small seed. tritical
What are the three ways to lengthen the vocal folds fix thyroid cartilage & arytenoids move, fix arytenoids & cricoid thyroid move, combination of both
The capsular ligament is made up of posterior ceratocricoid, anterior ceratocricoid, lateral ceratocricoid
In class we discuss three vocal folds in terms of a stadium, On the field you have _____, in first level of seats is the _____, and in the nose bleed section is the _____. true, false, ary-epiglottic
The arytenoids glide up/down on the cricoid arch, vibrate faster/slower. If down causes them to shorten, up would cause them to _____. Vibrating faster causes mass to decrease, vibrating slower causes mass to ______. lengthen, increase
The function of the _____ is to support/suspend the larynx from the hyoid bone. hyothyroid membrane
What is the function of the hypoepiglottic ligament? connecting framework support
The cricotracheal membrane connects the cricoid cartilage to the trachea, it is more thickened relative to other structures, it's function is support for holding structures in place
The intrinsic laryngeal membrane stems from one broad sheet of tissue called the elastic membrane of larynx, continuous fibrous elastic sheet that lines the inside of the larynx
What is the function of the conus elasticus (AKA - cricothyroid membrane)? connect thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid cartilages together
What's the name of the ligament where the true and false vocal folds come together? ventricular
The _____ connects structures together, helping to provide support for the upper part of the larynx. quadrangular membranes
What is the function of the aryepiglottic folds? it acts as a barrier adding structure and keeping the area going down to the vocal folds open or acts as a barrier largely keeping the hypo-pharynx kind of open.
Limits backward movement function of the anterior cricoarytenoid ligaments
posterior cricoarytenoid ligaments function restricts extent of forward movement
The cavity of the larynx is divided into super glottal (above vocal folds), & the infro glottal portion (below vocal folds)
The ventricular folds attach to the angle of thyroid cartilage just beneath the attachment of what? epiglottis. Posterior they attach to the anterior lateral surface of the arytenoid cartilages in the area of the triangular fovea.
The subglottal region includes the vocal folds, and the glottis. What is another name for the vocal folds and glottis? plicae vocales, glottal chink
The ______ folds lie parallel to, and just beneath, the ventricular folds. Originating at the thyroid cartilage, near the angle and below the thyroid notch. true
The glottis is the opening between the vocal folds.
membranous glottis 3/5th the total length of the glottis, extending from the anterior commissure, bound by vocal ligament, and extending back to vocal process.
makes up 2/5th of the glottis, containing the arytenoid portion of the glottis, vocal process to muscular process cartilaginous glottis
Intrinsic Muscle, one part attaches to larynx, other on outside - function moving larynx up/down, side to side, support and fix the position of the larynx, more likely to see vertical movement (elevators & depressors)
Extrinsic Muscle (position and support), inside the larynx, alternates vocal fold length, opening/closing of glottis, list some other descriptions rock on cricoid/arytenoid joint, muscles have to pull it down and slide it back up, muscles at cricothyroid joint involved in rocking forward, vibrate faster pitch increases
The arytenoids and cricoid are in charge of opening (abduction) and closing (adduction) the glottis
Suprahyoid above hyoid bone there be connection (raises larynx) - laryngeal elevators
one connection below the hyoid bone (lowers larynx) - laryngeal depressors Infrahyoid
Created by: brazil