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Speech Disorders

05 Physiological Acoustics- Anatomy Review Part 1 & 2

Torso Body trunk houses skeletal framework divided into upper & lower separated by the diaphragm
Diaphragm Contributes about 75% of the respiratory effort during quiet (aka reflective) respiration/inspiration
Thorax -Upper Cavity of toroso -contains the lungs, heart, rib cage
Abdomen -Lower part of Torso -contains organs involved in digestive, reproductive and excretion processes
When diaphragm contracts pulls the lungs down to increase capacity.
Upper Airways nose, mouth, throat, & larynx
Lower Airways trachea and bronchial tubes
Brochial Tubes Continue to divide and subdivide (like branches of a tree) until they are microscopic . . .eventually open into minute air sacs
Alveoli Minute air sacs, which are pitted with small depressions -Where red blood cells exchange CO2 for O2
external intercostals -contributes to 25% of quiet inspiration -in spaces between ribs; raises each rib below
Quiet Expression -no muscles involved. -due solely to the elastic recoil of the lungs -relaxation pressure comes out
Active Inspiration In addition to the diaphragm, and external intercostals, 9 different sets of muscles can be involved. -Pectoralis -Sternocleidomastoid -Latissimus Dorsi -Subclavius
Active Expiration Also involves 9 sets of muscles, including: -Internal Intercostals -Abdominals -Latissimus dorsi
Relaxation Pressure -Amount of pressure created in the lungs solely due to the elasticity of the lungs. -Decreases as lung volume decreases
When are expratory musclses used? -When you shout -When you need to continue exhaling/talking pass the point of expiatory pressure
Tidal Volume The amount of air inspired or expired during a respiratory cycle
Inspiratory Reserve Volume The maximum amount of air that can be taken into the lungs past the end-inspiratory level
Expiratory Reserve Volume The maximum amount of air that can be expired from the resting expiratory level
Residual Volume The amount of air remaining in lungs after maximum exhalation
Inspiratory Capacity The maximum amount of air inspired from the resting expiratory level =tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
Vital Capacity The maximum amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs after maximum inspiration =tidal volume + inspiratory reserve + expiratory reserve
Functional Residual Capacity The amount of air in the lungs at the resting expiratory level =expiratory reserve + residule volumes
Total Lung Capacity The amount of air in lungs after maximum inhalation = tidal volume + inspiratory reserve + expiratory reserve + residule volumes
Location of the Larynx -Sits on top of the trachea -Lies anterior to the pharynx (which is on top of esophagus)
3 cartilages of the larynx - thyroid cartilage - cricoid cartilage - two arytenoid cartilages
Epiglottis -Covers the entrance to the trachea during swallowing -Makes sure the food goes behind it down the esophagus so you don’t aspirate on what you’re swallowing.
Thyroarytenoid muscles -comprise the vocal folds - are attached to the arytenoids and thyroid
ThyroVocalis muscle the internal portion of the thyroarytenoid muscle
Arytenoid Cartilages Movement shifts the vocal folds towards (and away from) the midline
Posterior Cricoarytenoid muscle -only abductor muscle in the larynx -paralysis in this muscle leads to a tracheotomy -contraction of this muscle stretches vocal folds and cause voice pitch to go up
3 major adductor muscles of the larynx -Transverse Arytenoid -Oblique Arytenoid -Lateral Cricoarytenoid
Vocal Fold Fundamental Frequency (aka pitch) -due to mass of vocal mass (length & thickness) -The less mass higher the frequency (vibrates faster) -The greater the mass the lower the frequency (vibrates slower) -goes up as vocal the folds are stretched (decreasing their mass
Avg vocal fold length and fundamental frequency for a man *17-24 mm *125 Hz
Avg vocal fold length and fundamental frequency for a woman *13-17 mm *200 Hz
Avg fundamental frequency for a child 300 Hz
What Cranial Nerve innervates the Larynx? Cranial Nerve X (Vagus)
2 branches of the Vagus nerve? *recurrent laryngeal nerve *superior laryngeal nerve
recurrent laryngeal nerve -serves all intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid.
superior laryngeal nerve -innervates the cricothyroid, which is responsible for changing your pitch)
What causes the vocal folds to vibrate? Myoelastic Aerodynmic Theory of Phonation
Myoelastic Aerodynmic Theory of Phonation *Subglotal pressure (pressure from lungs when person takes a breath blows vocal folds apart *2 phenomenon causes return: 1)elasticity of vocal folds 2)Bernoulli principle
Bernoulli principle anytime you have air blowing across a flat surface, it creates a partial vacuum on that surface). If you blow b/w two sheets of paper they get sucked back together.
Bones that make up orbit of the eye -Frontal bone -Lacrimal bone -Ethmoid bone (Lamina papyracea) -Zygomatic bone (Orbital process of the zygomatic bone) -Maxillary bone (Orbital surface of the body of the maxilla) -Palatine bone (Orbital process of palatine bone) -sphenoid bone
2 bones that make up the hard palate -Maxillary bone -Palatine bone (
Hardest bone in body Petrous portion of the temporal bone
Quadratus labii facial muscle that helps you smile
Mandibular Depressors (open) Digastric muscle Mylohyoid muscle Geniohyoid muscle
Mandibular Elevators (close) Masseter muscle Temporalis muscle
Facial Muscles -Orbicularis Oris -Buccinator -Depressor Labii -Triangularis -Mentalis -Zygomatic -Quadratus labii
5 Muscles of tongue -Palotoglossus -Inferior longitudinal -Genioglossus -Hyloglossus -Styloglossus
6 Muscles Involved in Velopharyngeal Closure -Palatoglossus -Palatopharyngeous -Superior Constrictor -Middle Constrictor -Levator Palatine -Tensor Palatine
Facial Nerve Cranial Nerve 7
Parts of lips and nose -Nasal tip -Ala -Nostril sil -Philtrum -Cupid’s bow -Vermillion
Bones of the Skull -Frontal bone -Parietal bone -Occipital bone -Temporal Bone -Nasal bone -Zygomatic Bone -Maxilla Bone -Mandible
Created by: aramos139



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