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LD Ch 3, 4, 5

Lang. Develop. from Theory to Practice 2nd ed.

QuestionAnswer
child-directed speech (CDS) [define] the talk directed to children by others, including parents and other caregivers
complex syntax [define] grammatically well formed sentences containing phrases, clauses, & conjunctions, which are used to organnize the internal structures of the sentences
grammatical morphemes (AKA - inflectional morphemes) [define] small unites of language added to words to allow grammatical inflection of the words. ex: plural -s, possessive -'s, -ed, -ing
joint attention [define] attention focused on a mutual object. For infants, maintaining joint attention requires them to coordinate their attention between social partner and the object. Prereq. - development of conversational schema
mean length of utterance (MLU) [define] calculation of the number of morphemes per utterance used to estimate the syntactic complexity of children's utterances
phonotactic rules [define] rules of a person's native language that specify 'legal' orders of sounds in syllables and words and the places where specific phonemes can and cannot occur
register [define] stylist variations in language that are used in different situations. ex: vary language form, use. friend vs. professor
semantic network [define] a network in which the entries in a person's mental lexicon are stored according to their connective ties
simple syntax [define] grammatical well-formed sentences containing simple noun phrases and verb structures
vocabulary spurt [define] occurs near the end of the second year of a child's life, when he/she transitions from a slow stage of vocabulary development to a rapid stage of development
what is phonological development? becoming sensitive to prosodic & phonotactic cues in streams of speech, developing internal representations of the phonemes of the native language & becoming phonologically aware
what is morphological development? acquiring grammatical (inflectional) & derivational morphemes
what is syntactic development? increasing utterance length, using different sentence modalities & developing complex syntax
what is semantic development? developing a lexicon, learning new words & organizing the lexicon for efficient retrieval
what is pragmatic development? acquiring communication functions, developing conversational skills & gaining sensitivity to extra-linguistic cues
what are the 5 semantic taxonomies? specific nominals, general nominals, action words, modifiers, personal
specific nominals [define] specific object, ex: Daddy or Fluffy
general nominals [define] all members of a category, ex: those, cats
action words [define] describe specific actions, social-action games and action inhibitors, ex: up, peek-a-boo, no
modifiers [define] properties/qualities, ex: big or mine
personal [define] social words, describe effective states & relationships, ex: yes, bye-bye
broca's area [define] a region of the left frontal lobe of the cerebrum, important for the fine coordination of speech output
central nervous system (CNS) [define] the brain and the spinal cord
frontal lobe [location] the largest of the six lobes in the cerebrum. Resides in the most anterior part of the brain, behind the forehead.
Heschl's gyrus [define] a small left temporal lobe region that appears to be specialized for processing speech, particularly its temporal aspects
myelin [define] the coating sheathing each neuron. the myelin sheath contributes to the rapid relay of nerve impulses, particularly within white matter, and protects the neuron
neural plasticity [define] the malleability of the central nervous system, or the ability of the sensory and motor systems to organize and reorganize by generating new synaptic connections or by using existing synapses for alternative means.
neurons [define] the billions of highly specialized cells that compose the nervous system
parietal lobes [location] two of the six lobes of the cerebrum. they reside posterior to the frontal lobe on the left and right sides (above the ears)
sensitive period [define - long definition] with regard to the human brain, a time frame of development during which a particular aspect of neuroanatomy or neurophysiology that underlies a given sensory or motoric capacity undergoes growth or change.
synapse [define] the site where two neurons meet. For the two neurons to communicate, the nerve impulses must cross the synapse
temporal lobes [location] two of the six lobes of the cerebellum. They sit posterior to the frontal lobe but inferior to the parietal lobes (behind the ears).
Wernicke's area (AKA receptive speech area)[define] resides in the superior portion of the left temporal lobe near the intersection of the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes - or parieto-occipitotemporal junction. critical for language comprehension.
neuroanatomy the anatomical structures of the nervous system
neurophysiology the way the anatomical structures of the nervous system work together as a complex unit and separate, distinct biological units
what are the major structures of the human brain? cerebrum, brainstem, & cerebellum
how does the human brain process and produce language? Various areas of the brain work together in order to produce speech.
what are neurophysiological and neuroanatomical sensitive periods? A time frame of development during which a particular aspect of neuro-anat. Or neuro-phys. That underlies a given sensory or motoric capacity undergoes growth or change.
how does the human brain process and produce language - computer analogy Through a complex inter-connected network of generators and switching centers the system adjusts and redirects power from other generators and apportions output to different units.
frontal lobe [function] Activates and controls both fine and complex motor activities and controls executive functions. Includes the prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, and premotor cortex.
parietal lobes [function] perceiving incoming sensory and perceptual information and integrating it with the executive functions of the frontal lobe, comprehending oral and written language, and performing mathematical calculations
sensitive period [define - short definition] A critical window of opportunity for development.
temporal lobes [function] processing auditory information and language comprehension. include Heschl's gyrus and Wernicke's area
the brain is the... most complex organ of the human body, also weighs about 2 lbs.
cerebrum (AKA - cerebral cortex) [define] most unique human qualities: reasoning, problem solving, planning, & hypothesizing.
cerebrum (size) largest of the 3 divisions of the brain, 40% weight of the brain, contains more than 100 billion neurons.
brainstem [location, contains] sits on top of the spinal cord, serving as the connection between the brain and the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, the pons & medulla oblongata.
brainstem [functions name 2 others] - the brainstem structures and functions are associated with metabolism and arousal. ** key transmitter of sensory information to the brand and of motor information away from the brain. ** major relay station for the cranial nerves supplying the head and face and for controlling the visual & auditory senses.
what major language development milestones occur in infancy? infant speech perception, awareness of actions and intentions, category formation & early vocalizations
what are some of the early foundations for language development? infant-directed speech, joint reference and attention, the daily routines of infancy & caregiver responsiveness
major achievements in language form for infants, in terms of phonology infants begin to produce sounds as soon as they are born
major achievements in language form for infants, in terms of morphology & syntax because infants do not produce their first word until 1 year of age, infant's accomplishments in these areas are minimal, if not nonexistent
major achievements in language content for infants, semantics infants must say true words with clear intention, infants must produce true words with recognizable pronunciation that approximates the adult form.
What is a true word? a word that a child uses consistently and generalizes beyond
major achievements in language use for infants, pragmatics attention seeking to self, requesting objects, requesting action, requesting information, greeting, transferring, protesting or rejecting, responding or acknowledging & informing
factors that contribute to infants' individual achievements in language intraindividual differences - language development; interindividual differences - variation: in language development rate, in language-learning styles, & at the extremes of the typical range for language development
how researchers measure language development in infancy habituation-dishabituation tasks, switch task, intermodal preferential looking paradigm, naturalistic observation
how do clinicians measure language development in infancy informal language screens, parent-report measures
babbling [define] a young child's production of syllables that contain pairs of consonants and vowels. (c-v sequences), usually begins between 6-10 months
declarative pointing [define] pointing by an infant to call an adult's attention to objects and to comment on objects. Involves a social process between an infant and an adult. Occurs after age 10 mos.
expressive language [define] the language a person produces spontaneously, without imitating another person's verbalizations. includes content, form, & use.
habituation [define] describes a task that involves presenting an infant with the same stimulus repeatedly until his or her attention to the stimulus decreases by a predetermined amount
intersubjective awareness [define] recognition of when one person shares a mental focus on some external object or action with another person
jargon [define] a special type of babbling that contains the true melodic patterns of an infant's native language. Such babbling resembles questions, exclamations and commands, even in the absence of recognizable words.
marginal babbling [define] an early type of babbling containing short strings of consonant-like & vowel-like sounds. Usually emerge as infants gain control of their articulation at around 5-8 mos.
nonreduplicated babbling (AKA - variegated babbling) [define] babbling consisting of nonrepeating consonant-vowel combinations, such as 'da ma goo ga.' Occurs around 6-10 mos.
paralinguistic [define] With infant-directed speech, paralinguistic features include a high overall pitch, exaggerated pitch contours, & slower tempos than those of adult-directed speech.
reduplicated babbling [define] babbling that consists of repeating consonant-vowel pairs, such as 'da da da.'
supported joint engagement [define] joint attention in which adults use such techniques as speaking with an animated voice or showing an infant novel objects
paralinguistic - aspects of communication outside the linguistic information pitch, loudness, posture, & eye contact
3 pragmatic skills of preschoolers use of language for different communication functions, development of conversational skills, ability to interpret extralinguistic cues
how to examine an individual's phonological awareness using a variety of simple tasks syllable counting, rhyme detection, initial sound identification, initial sound elision, phoneme counting
register [define] ability to use different styles of speaking - motherese, polite terms, varying tones
presupposition [define] shared knowledge with the listener, assumption made by the speaker about the listener knowledge and the social relationship with the listener
ellipsis [define] shared knowledge
narratives [define] uninterrupted stream of language modified by the speaker to capture & hold the listener's interest
fast-mapping [define] ability to infer a connection between a word & its referent after only ONE exposure
slow-mapping [define] takes several exposures/experiences to infer a connection between a word and it's referent
basic functions of communication: instrumental ask for something
basic functions of communication: regulatory give directions and to direct others
basic functions of communication: interactional interacting and conversing with others
basic functions of communication: personal expressing a state of mind or feelings
basic functions of communication: heuristic to inquire, gain information
basic functions of communication: imaginative telling stories and role-playing
basic functions of communication: informative providing a description of event or object
neurolinguistics [define] the study of the manner and location of processing linguistic information
3 types of fiber tracts association, projection, & transverse - largest being the corpus callosum
3 basic functions of the brain regulation (brain stem) - energy level & overall tone of the cortex; processing (rear of cortex) - info. analysis, coding, storage; formulation (frontal lobe) - formation of intentions/programs for behavior
myelination [define] maturation of the nervous system. The nerve develops a myelin sheath. Begins at about 14 weeks in utero & continues through adolescence
4 steps in information processing attention, discrimination, organization, memory
metacognition [define] our knowledge about our processing & our 'use' of the knowledge. Helps us in problem-solving, making decisions & make changes in the process as needed
steps in attention orientation - sustained attention, reaction - time required to respond, discrimination - identify and place new stimuli
ToM (Theory of Mind) [define] ability to understand that others have their own thoughts, beliefs and feelings. The ability to understand the minds of others and to comprehend and predict their behavior.
memory [divisions] sensory, working, short-term, long-term
Echoic memory [define] remembering hat was heard when it no longer is present and requires rapid processing
Iconic memory [define] visual, imprint on brain does fade, but can still think of things visually
olfactory memory [define] smell, ex: (bread, thanksgiving)
working memory [describe] holds info for the brain to discriminate, involved in both processing & storing info, consists of several related systems for language processing
transfer or generalize is the process of applying old information to new. Near - similar Far - new or unfamiliar information
ToM requires... side note: self-awareness develops in parallel with ToM social & interactional experiences over several years to reach fully mature abilities
characteristics: infant-directed speech, syntactic features shorter MLU, fewer subordinate clauses, more content words & fewer function words
characteristics: infant-directed speech, discourse features more repetition, more questions
characteristics: infant-directed speech, paralinguistic features high overall pitch, exaggerated pitch contours, slower tempos
using infant-directed speech to introduce new words & phrases should capture the infant's attention & increase the change that they will focus on the speech they hear
category formulation [define] -prelinguistic ability one of the earliest to develop & perhaps one of the most robust predictors of later cognitive and linguistic outcomes. ability to form categories, or to group items & events according to the perceptual & conceptual features they share, is crucial for language development.
joint referencing** joint referencing - can't find**
joint attention [define] simultaneous engagement of two or more individuals in mental focus on a single external object of focus. ex: parent reading storybook to child & looking at the pictures together
according to Vygotsky language development is a dynamic process that occurs within children's zone of proximal development as they interact socially with more advanced peers & adults
Adamson/Chance's proposed 3 major developmental phases with respect to joint reference and joint attention 1 - attendance to social partners 2 - emergence and coordination of joint attention 3 - transition to language
Adamson/Chance's phase 1 attend to social partners, receptive to interpersonal interactions, maintain attention when engaged with other people
Adamson/Chance's phase 2 engage in joint attention, perform object-focused activities, attempt to communicate with other people
Adamson/Chance's phase 3 use 'language' to communicate intentionally with other people
Research results support the idea that category formation is hierarchical & includes three levels: superordinate, subordinate, & basic
superordinate [describe] uppermost level, describe the most general concept in a particular category & include words such as food, furniture, & clothing
subordinate [describe] lowest level, describe specific concepts in a category, ex: garbanzo, pinto & kidney = types of beans
basic [describe] center, general concepts in category, including words such as apple, chair & shirt.
Two categories infants use on each level of the hierarchy perceptual - similar appearing features (color, shape, size); conceptual - what objects do (balls roll, dogs bark, airplanes fly)
pragmatic development with the preschool child includes vocabulary increases greatly, ability to 'have a conversation' usually improves, & conversation still pertains to 'now'
deictic terms [define] used to direct attention, to make spatial contrasts, & to denote times or participants in a conversation from the speaker's point of view. ex: here/there, this/that
Remember to review all handouts/PowerPoints.. including Pragmatic Development, Infant Phonology and Semantic Development, Remember to Review: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of language, Semantic Development, Inflectional and Derivational Morphology and Bound Morphemes, Gen. Fns of Right/Left hemispheres, Receptive Linguistic Processing
Created by: brazil