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Phonatory System


When vocal folds are separated abduction
when vocal folds are brought together adduction
opening to the larynx formed by epiglottis in front, ends at arytenoids in back, aryepiglottic folds on side aditus laryngis
angle formed by union of laminae angle of the thyroid
narrow band in the front (part of cricoid cartilage) anterior arch
anterior attachment of the vocal folds-diverge as they course toward posterior commissure anterior commisure
type of cuneiform cartilage, forms entrance to larynx, extend from sides of epiglottis to apexes of arytenoids aryepiglottic fold
dramatic increase in airflow across a gradient. "If volume fluid flow is constant, velocity of flow must increase at an area of constriction, but with a corresponding decrease of pressure at the constriction Bernoulli Effect
holds cricothyroid joint in place (posterior, lateral, anterior) ceratocricoid ligament
lower portion of the internal (elastic) laryngeal membrane-well defined conus elasticus
"horns" that project off of the hyoid bone cornua
posterior: restricts extent of forward movement of arytenoid cartilage, imposes constraints on extent of any gliding movements. Anterior. Often absent, poorly developed. May limit backward movement of arytenoid. cricoarytenoid ligament
attaches inferior border of cricoid cartilage to first tracheal ring-holding cricoid in place. thicker than others. Cricotracheal membrane
recording the electrical energy generated by active muscles electromyography
those that have one attachment to structures outside the larynx. Responsible for suppport of the larynx. extrinsic laryngeal muscles
a voice register above the middle or head register. (highest pitch) falsetto
extends from hyoid bone to thyroid notch, separates epiglottis from hyoid bone & thyroid cartilage fat pad
the depression at the base of the arytenoid cartilages-on the anterolateral surface fovea oblonga
average rate of vocal fold vibration-determines pitch fundamental frequency
2 folds; with median on anterior surface of epiglottis-connects to tongue glossoepiglottic ligament
abrupt release of the adductor mechanism that initiates sudden vocal fold vibration glottal attack
creaky voice produced by phonating at lowest possible pitch glottal fry
normal pitch habitual pitch
the partials of a complex sound which are integral multiples of fundamental frequency harmonic
attaches to epiglottis (where leaflike portion is broadest) to hyoid bone (elastic ligament) hyoepiglottic ligament
starts on posterior surface of thyroid horns and hyoid bone-membrane is thickened hyothyroid ligament
have both attachments confined to larynx. control sound production intrinsic laryngeal muscles
thin plate or layer lamina
layer of the thyroarytenoid, superficial, intermediate, deep lamina propria
sectional radiography that shows layers of the body laminagraphy
degree of stretching force longitudinal tension
the vocal ligaments common point of attachment on the thyroid cartilage. aka anterior commissure, laryngeal saccule macula flava anterior
extent of force with which the vocal folds are brought together at the midline medial compression
located on posterolateral angle of arytenoid cartilage-bulge at the base-muscles will attach here. Responsible for abduction and adduction of vocal folds. muscular process
current physiology theory of phonology. Changes of elasticity in muscle & aerodynamic principles cause phonation. Myoelastic Aerodynamic
old theory of phonation: vocal fold vibration occurs according to timing of neural impulses-causes abduction and adduction neurochronaxic
successive doubling of frequency octave
aka natural pitch level. suitable pitch level for an individual-determined by physical characteristics of voice mechanism optimal pitch
medial-most component of the cricothyroid muscle pars recta
arises from the cricoid cartilage lateral to the pars recta pars oblique
device for indicating velocity or quantity of airflow pneumotachygraph
the vocal fold attachment on the anterolateral surface of the arytenoid cartilage posterior commisure
back part of cricoid cartilage-hexagonal plate (signet ring). Occupies space between posterior margin of thyroid cartilage posterior quadrate lamina
pyriform sinus deep depression, lateral to the aditus laryngis
upper part of the inrinsic laryngeal membrane quadrangular membrane
space between the true vocal folds (aka "glottis") rima glottis
subglottic space space below the vocal folds
the region above the glottis; includes: vestibule & ventricle supraglottal space
attaches epiglottis to thyroid cartilage at the angle just beneath the thyroid notch thyroepiglottic ligament
where the incomplete fusion of the thyroid laminae occurs-results in V-shaped notch Thyroid Notch
Adam's apple. Right below thyroid notch. Thyroid Prominence
to illuminate the interior or lumen of a structure by passing light through tissue transillumination
exaggerated vibrato tremolo
the triangular depression of the arytenoid cartilages-on anterolateral surface near apex. triangular fovea
small valleys (pits)-seen between epiglottis and root of tongue, on either side of median valleculae
small supraglottal region located between ventricular folds and vocal folds ventricle
aka false vocal folds. soft & flacid appearance-can't become tense. ventricular folds
small and rapid pitch intensity changes during singing vibrato
on vocal folds & continuous with conus elasticus vocal ligament
the anterior angle, near the base of arytenoid cartilage, prolonged pointed projection. Vocal ligament inserts on this process. Vocal process.
Created by: bertaka



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