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WAN

Midterm

QuestionAnswer
Lab Cabling: What is the Module # where the serial connections are located? Module 0
Lab Cabling: What are the Slot #s where the serial connections are located? (top/bottom) Top = Slot 3, Bottom = Slot 1
Lab Cabling: What are the actual serial interface #s and where are they located? Top to bottom = s0/2/1, s0/2/0, s0/0/1, s0/0/0
Lab Cabling: Which serial cable end controls the clock timing? DCE, need to set clock rate on this end.
What is MTU? Maximum Transmission Unit
What is the default encapsulation protocol on serial links for the lab routers? HDLC
If your serial interface gets a dynamically assigned IP what does that mean? SLARP is supported which dynamically assigns the IP
What is split-horizon? Prevent routing loops. Prohibits router from advertising a route back onto the interface from which is was learned.
What is proxy-arp? Answers ARP queries for network address that is not on the local network.
What are the default settings for split-horizon and proxy-arp? Both on
What is the default MTU setting? 1500
What does DORA stand for? (dhcp) Discover, Offer, Request, Acknowledge
What informational error messages are received when there is no DHCP pool created? none
When you enable IPv6 on a PC interface, what can automatically configure an address? SLAAC, Stateless Address AutoConfiguration
What is the purpose of Microsoft temporary IPv6 address? Security to prevent tracking
What type of handshake does CHAP use? 3-way handshake
Using CHAP authentication what are the password requirements? Must be the same password on both routers
Suppose you are configuring a router with hostname AAA connecting to a remote router with hostname BBB using CHAP authentication. On AAA, you should setup: username BBB password cisco
PPP multilink is comparable to what other protocol? LACP (link aggregation)
Which PPP sublayer protocol negotiates a ppp multi-link bundle? LCP
What type of handshake does PAP authentication use? 2-way
What are the password requirements when using 2-way PAP authentication? Can be the same password but best practices should be different.
Which command specifies the authentication method that the neighbour router should use to login to you? ppp authentication pap
Which authentication method allows another router to connect immediately without username/password verification? no ppp authentication
Must the PPP authentication method must be the same for both routers. No
Which NCP protocol will be open when using IPv4 addresses? IPCP
Which NCP protocol will be open when using IPv6 addresses? IPV6CP
What is the layer 2 address on a frame-relay interface? DLCI
With frame-relay when should you use inverse-arp to discover mappings? full-mesh topology, in any partial-mesh must be configured manually
When using frame-relay without sub-interfaces why would you want to use the broadcast option on the mappings? To allow for dynamic routing
What are 4 goals of introducing IPv6? Address space (128bit), Security (auth & encrypt), layer 2 improvements, efficiency
How does IPv6 handle fragmenting packets? No fragmentation, routers do packet size discovery
IPv4 has 4 octets, what does IPv6 have? 8 hextets (16 bit per hextet)
What section is composed of the first 3 hextets (48 bits) of IPv6 address? Site Prefix or Global Routing Prefix. Assigned by service provider.
What section is composed of the 4th hextet of IPv6 address? Site Topology or Subnet ID
What section is composed of the last 4 hextets (68 bits) of IPv6 address? Interface ID. Can be manually or dynamically assigned using the EUI-64 command.
What is EUI? Extended Unique Identifier
What are the sections in the first 3 hextets of IPv6 address? 3-IANA Global Routing, 3-Regional Registry, 2-ISP, 4-Site/Customer ID
How does EUI-64 command set up the IP? Takes 48-bit MAC address and add FF:FE (16 bits) to the middle of it to make 64 bits.
Why are you only allowed to use double colons to shorten IPv6 address once? Used more than once address could be ambiguous (more than one possible expanded address).
What is a Double Stack? When an interface has both an IPv4 and IPv6 address.
Why must you issue the 'no ipv6 address' command instead of just overwriting it with a new address? Interface can have multiple IPv6 addresses so you are not able to overwrite if you made a mistake.
What is the difference between multicast and anycast? Anycast is only delivered to a single device, multicast delivered to multiple.
What type of address is FE80:: Link-local address
What type of address is ::1 Loopback
Which network design uses the Access, Distribution, and Core layers? Hierarchical Network Design
Bottom layer of Hierarchical Network Design? Access, layer 2, port security used here
Middle layer of Hierarchical Network Design? Distribution, ACLs & filtering, routing between VLANs, redundancy
Top layer of Hierarchical Network Design? Core, High speed, fault tolerant
What is a Two-Tier Collapsed Core Design? distribution layer and core layer functions are implemented by a single device.
Which network design separates network into functional network modules? Modular Design and Enterprise Architecture
Which module in Modular Network Design would contain the internet/WAN edge? Enterprise Edge module
Which module in Modular Network Design was originally called server farm? Data center module
What are the 3 emerging enterprise architectures Borderless Networks, Data Center/Virtualization, Collaboration
Which OSI layers does the WAN operate in? 1-2 Physical and Data Link
Difference between Packet and Circuit switching? Circuit is dedicated connection to customer, packet is shared network.
What are some examples of layer 2 WAN protocols? PPP, Frame relay, ATM, MPLS, HDLC, Ethernet
Device Type: Devices located on the enterprise edge connecting to a carrier link. Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
Device Type: Devices that put data onto the local loop, provides an interface to connect subscribers to a communication link on the WAN cloud Data Communications Equipment (DCE)
Device Type: Custer devices that pass data from a computer network for transmission over the WAN. Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)
What is the Demarcation Point? Point which separates customer and service provider equipment
What is the local loop? Actual line that connects CPE to the Central Office of the service provider. Also called the last mile.
What are advantages of a Leased Line? Simplicity, Availability, Quality
What are disadvantages of a Leased Line? Cost, Limited flexibility
What are advantages of Dialup? Simplicity, Availability, Low Cost
What are disadvantages of Dialup? Low data rate, long connection negotiation time
What is a CSU/DSU? Required for digital leased lines. Can be a modem or an interface on router. CSU = termination, DSU = converts line frames into LAN frames.
Is PPP circuit or packet switched? Circuit
What is the cisco developed extension to HLDC? Why did they make it? cHDLC...solve inability to provide multi-protocol support
What are the three types of HDLC frames? Information(I), Supervisory(S), Unnumbered(U)
What are 3 main components to PPP? HDLC Encapsulation, LCP, NCP
PPP: What is the purpose of the LCP? Extensible Link Control Protocol, establish, configure, test link connection, link termination
PPP: What is the purpose of the NCP? Network Control Protocol, many different NCPs for each different network layer protocol (IP, IPv6, CDP, etc)
What are LCP Echo-Request and Echo-Reply used for? Link maintenance
What are 5 configuration options of PPP? Authentication (PAP|CHAP), Compression, Error detection, Multilink, PPP Callback
What are the 3 phases to establishing PPP session? LCP Link Establish, LCP determine link quality, NCP negotiation
PPP Show command: view Open, listening, and closed protocols show interfaces serial 0/0/0
Which PPP authentication protocol uses challenges? CHAP
In CHAP how does the remote router respond to a challenge? Sends CHAP username and a hash value based on the CHAP password and challenge
PPP debug command: Which command is used to show PAP and CHAP messages? debug ppp authentication
PPP debug command: Which command is used to show PPP startup and negotiation messages? debug ppp negotiation
What is the FRAD? Frame Relay Access Device, the router connected to the Frame Relay network
What is a Virtual Circuit? Virtual because there is no direct electrical connection from end to end, this allows it to be shared.
What is a PVC? Permanent Virtual Circuit, manually configured as opposed to dynamically (which would be SVC).
What is DLCI? Data Link Connection Identifier, layer 2 frame-relay address so it is only locally significant. 16-1007 are the usable VC identifiers.
Frame-Relay can use inverse ARP to obtain addresses for IPv4, what is used for IPv6? Inverse Neighbor Discovery (IND)
Why must inverse ARP be turned off for a frame relay hub and spoke topology? Spoke routers do not have direct connectivity with each other so dynamic inverse ARP does not work.
What is the ietf option used for in frame-relay map commands? When connecting to a non cisco router.
Which show command is used to display frame relay connections set up on the router? show frame-relay map
What is the LMI? Local Management Interface, provides status information, keepalive, multicasting, global addressing, flow control.
What are 3 types of LMI and their VC identifiers? ansi = 0, cisco = 1023, q933a(ITU) = 0
Which show command is used to display LMI message information? show interface s0/0/0
In frame-relay what is CIR? Customer Information Rate, data rate guaranteed to the customer by service provider.
How does the DE flag work in frame-relay? Discard Eligibility, bit is set one some frames when customer sends information faster than CIR (Bursting). If there is congestion these bits get discarded first.
In frame-relay what is Bursting? When customer sends information faster than CIR, causes DE flag to be set on some frames.
What is difference between Bc and Be Bursting in frame-relay? Bc negotiated excess rate marks frames with DE bit, Be not negotiated and frames likely get dropped.
What is the difference between BECN and FECN? Forward/Backward Explicit Congestion Notification. BECN = upstream to source, FECN = Downstream to destination congestion
Created by: Datheral