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Athletic Training


bones of the foot 14 phalanges 5 metatarsals 7 tarsals cuboid navicular calcaneus talus sesamoids
ankle mortise aka talocrural joint tibia fibula talus
pes planus flat arch forcing foot into pronation higher risk for eversion ankle sprains
pes cavus high arch forcing foot into supination higher risk for lateral ankle sprains
sublingual hematoma accumulation of blood beneath the nail from direct contact can require pressure relief if painful
pressure relief for sublingual hematoma needle drill cauterizer
retrocalcaneal bursitis pump bump caused by friction over retrocalcaneal bursa causing inflammation and irritation
Morton's neuroma irritation of surrounding nerve between the 3rd and 4th metatarsal caused by overuse or tight shoes
soft tissue involved in LATERAL ankle sprain ATF, calcanealfibular, and PTF
shin splints medial tibial stress syndrome
patella largest sesamoid bone in the body
medial meniscus attaches to capsule and MCL C shaped
lateral meniscus attaches to capsule and popliteus muscle O shaped
meniscal blood supply outer red red middle red white inner white white
ACL stands for anterior cruciate ligament
ACL stabilizes the tibia against internal rotation, and secondary restraint for valgus and verus forces
collateral ligaments of the knee MCL (medial collateral ligament) LCL (lateral collateral ligament)
MCL prevents against ______ forces valgus
LCL prevents against ______ forces verus
muscles of the quad vastus lateralis vastus intermedialis vastus medialis rectus femoris
muscles of the hamstring semitendinosis semimembranosus bicep femoris
quad action knee extension and hip flexion
hamstring action knee flexion and hip extension
sartorius longest muscle in the body
knocked knee genu valgum
knocked knee prone to medial knee pathology
bow legged genu varum
bow legged prone to lateral knee pathology
hyper extended knee genu recurvatum
hyper extended knee prone to anterior/posterior knee pathology
extra capsular swelling localized over injury site
true leg length ASIS to medial malleolus
apparent leg length belly button to medial malleolus
predisposing factors for ACL sprain gender sport surface muscle imbalance hormones Q angle trochlear notch
ACL sprain special tests anterior drawer lachman's pivot shift test
patella tendonitis (stage 1) during activity
patella tendonitis (stage 2) during and after activity
patella tendonitis (stage 3) during and prolonged after activity
Q angle angle created from ASIS through the middle of the patella to the tibial tuberosity
iliofemoral ligament prevents hyperextension and external rotation of femur from ilium; strongest
muscles connecting femur to pelvis gluteus minimus piriformis adductor magnus adductor brevis adductor longus bicep femoris semitendonosis
most common hip dislocation (very rare) posterior dislocation (flexion and adduction)
hip pointer direct impact to iliac spine or iliac crest
avascular necrosis degeneration of the femoral head caused by lack of blood supply symptoms are pain, weakness, and loss of function
stop consecutive ultrasound treatment after _______ weeks and monitor for ______ weeks 12-15 2
coupling medium needed for ultrasound to transmit ultrasound
phonophoresis the use of ultrasound to drive molecules of a drug or substance through the skin to underlying tissues
how does ultrasound work? (part 1) an electrical current travels down and until it hits the sound head where there is a synthetic crystal. when it hits, the crystal deforms from cycles of compression (short and thick) to rarefaction (long and thin) resulting in ultrasonic waves.
how does ultrasound work? (part 2) when the sound waves leave the crystal they initially run parallel. this is known as the Fresnel zone. when they split it is known as the fraunhofer zone. the waves hitting the molecules in the body causes causes them to vibrate and produce heat
usual frequency of ultrasound 1 MHz and 3 MHz
frequency of ultrasound controls... the frequency of the sound waves transmitted and the depth of sound wave penetration
3 MHz ultrasound waves are used for... superficial tissues
Electric stimulation levels of stimulation subsensory sensory motor noxious
with heat treatment, blood viscosity... decreases
local effects of heat treatment (part 1) vasodilation increases in: cell metabolism delivery of leukocytes cell permeability venus return, lymphatic drainage elasticity of muscles, ligaments, capsules analgesia, relaxation, nerve conduction
local effects of heat treatment (part 2) edema formation metabolic waste removal increased nerve conduction reduced joint stiffness perspiration
trauma causes: (on the therapeutic modalities slide about cryotherapy physiological effects) pain inflammation dysfunction spasm local ischemia
circulatory effects of cryotherapy vasoconstriction followed by slight period of vasodilation (temp increase) known as hunting response. thought to take place as body's defense against tissue death from too much cold.
reynaud's phenomenon abnormal vasoconstriction in the extremities when exposed to cold or emotional stress
forces that produce mechanical injury compression tension shearing bending torsion
acute sudden and severe onset
chronic develops and worsens over time
parts of muscle muscle tendon fascia
muscle has the ability of... contracting conducting elasticity irritability
muscle strain stretch, tear, or rip in the muscle or its tendon
muscle strain (grade 1) some fibers stretched or torn full range of motion
muscle strain (grade 2) number of fibers torn divits down swelling
muscle strain (grade 3) complete rupture initial severe pain lessons because nerves become separated
rehab length (grade 2 muscle strain) 6-8 weeks
clonic muscle spasm alternating periods of involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation in rapid succession
tonic muscle spasm rigid muscle contraction that lasts for a period of time
muscle cramp involuntary muscle contraction most common in hamstring and calf
muscle guarding involuntary muscle contraction in response to pain or injury
DOMS delayed onset muscle soreness
DOMS caused by small tears to muscle associated with eccentric and isometric muscle contraction or disruption of the connective tissues that hold the muscle tendon fibers together
DOMS settles in after ____ hours and is at its worst after ____ hours 12 24-48
crepitus crackling feeling or sound
myofascial trigger point discrete hypersensitive bands of muscle or fascia
myofascial trigger point (latent) discrete hypersensitive bands of muscle or fascia full range of motion
myofascial trigger point (active) discrete hypersensitive bands of muscle or fascia cannot move
myositis ossifications calcium deposits from repeated trauma
synovial fluid provides SHOCK ABSORPTION, lubrication, and joint nutrition
ligament sprain (grade 1) stretch with some ligament fiber separation
ligament sprain (grade 2) tearing of some fibers with instability of the joint
ligament sprain (grade 3) complete tearing of the ligament initially painful, but lessens due to nerve disruption needs surgery
subluxation bone comes partially out and reduces immediately (most common in shoulder and knee)
dislocation bone in a joint is forced completely out of its normal and proper alignment (common in shoulder, elbow, fingers)
do not attempt to reduce a dislocation because... any dislocation could be a fracture don't want to cause any neurovascular damage
inner bone is compact
outer bone is spongey
periostium outside layer of the bone
epiphysis ends of the bone
articular cartilage hyaline cartilage
open fracture overlaying skin is lacerated by protruding bone fragments
closed fracture fracture does not penetrate the superficial surface
causes of stress fractures returning to competition too soon overtraining changing events without proper prep training too quickly changing environment
stress fractures are not always... seen on x-ray
hypoasthesia decreased feeling
hyperasthesia increased feeling
parathesia numbness, tingling, prickling
neuritis inflammation of a nerve
neuropraxia interruption of the conduction down a nerve fiber
complete nerve division or nerve crushing may lead to paraplegia or quadriplegia
bloodborne pathogen a pathogenic microorganism that causes disease
bloodborne pathogens are present in: blood semen vaginal secretions csf synovial fluid any other fluid contaminated with blood
three most significant bloodborne pathogens hepatitis B virus hepatitis C virus HIV
HBV can... present with no symptoms
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) can go _____ years without symptoms 8-10 years
MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
PPE stands for personal protective equipment
bleach to water ratio 1/4 cup of bleach to one gallon of water for normal decontamination 1.5 cups bleach to one gallon of water for severe contamination
contaminated materials should be disposed in... red or orange containers or bags clearly marked biohazard
OSHA stands for occupational safety and health administration
open wounds should be dressed using... occlusive dressing
hunting response vasoconstriction followed by slight period of vasodilation (temp increase)
Fresnel zone when the sound waves leave the crystal in an ultrasound they initially run parallel
fraunhofer zone when sound waves in an ultrasound split
Created by: mkmcmanus
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