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Business Test 2


what is an orgnization group of 2 or more people working together to achieve a common set of goals
What are the characteristics of an organization? Job Design, Departmentalization, Delegation, Span of Management, chain of command
what is an organizational chart, why do we need one? A diagram that represents positions within an organization. so we know who is in charge and what our role is in the company
Job specialization separation of all organizational activities into distinct tasks and assignment of tasks to people
why do we need job specialization? a job is too large for one person, efficiency, people have different skill sets, easier job training, able to have specialized machines
what is the problem with job specialization and having only one person be the specialized if they leave, you are out of luck
what are some alternatives to job specialization job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment
job rotation rotate employees through different specialties to keep things interesting
job enlargement increasing responsibility of each job, giving you more stuff to do so you dont get bored
job enrichment adding more stuff to your job
what are the different ways we group or departmentalize in a firm by function, by product, by location, by customer
what are advantages and disadvantages of departmentalization by function +: supervision is simplified. -: slow decision making, emphasize department over the organization as a whole
what are advantages and disadvantages of departmentalization by product +: decision making easier, integration of all activities associated with each product (marketing, production, financial) -: duplication of specialized activities (finance, marketing) between departments. emphasis on product rather than whole org
what are advantages and disadvantages of departmentalization by customer +: deal efficiently with unique customers -: large administrative staff is needed
how do more firms organize their departments? They use a combination of two in order to improve efficiency and to avoid overlap. PepsiCo is divided by product and by location
What are the steps in delegation assign responsibility, grant authority, assign accountability
What are some barriers to delegation? manager does not trust employee. manager is unorganized. manager is afraid employee will take their position
decentralized authority spread authority widely across various organization levels (some managers in lower level make decisions, some in top level)
centralized authority concentrate authority at upper levels
factors influencing a decentralized or centralized authority Complex or unpredictable environment (high complexity-decentralized), risk involved in decision making (high risk-centralized), ability of lower level managers(good authority in low-decentralized)
what is the span of management number of workers who report directly to one manager
Wide span management - why choose it? manager has a lot of subordinates. both manager and subordinate are competent. standard operating procedures. few new problems
Narrow span of management - why choose it? manager only has a few subordinates. workers are far away from each other. manager is super busy. great deal of interaction required. new problems arise quickly.
What are the different forms of organizational structure Line structure, line and staff, matrix, network
Line structure simplest organizational structure. chain of command goes down from person to person in a line. usually small organizations. managers have more work
line and staff similar to line structure but managers now have staff managers to assist them. like a TA or assistant . medium - large orgs
what kind of authority does staff manager have in line and staff structure functional authority-make decisions for their specific area. advisory authority-main managers consults with staff manager
matrix structure combining product departmentalization with function departmentalization. more complex. employees report to more than one supervisor
cross-functional team individuals with varying specialties, expertise and skills brought together to achieve a common task. temporary
advantages of matrix structure added flexibility, increase productivity, raise morale, nurture creativity and innovation
Disadvantages of matrix structure have to report to multiple supervisors causes confusion. unclear responsibilities, poor communication, hard to reward team and individual, more expensive, personality clashes
The network structure aka virtual organization, administration is primary function, most other functions are contracted out to other firms
what are advantages of network structure Flexibility-change easily. no centralized leader
what are disadvantages of network structure hard to control quality of work performed by other organizations. lack of clear hierarchy. low morale
corporate culture inner rituals, rules, heroes and values of a firm
what does corporate culture affect employee actions. public perception. firm's performance over time
4 types of corporate culture networked culture (trust and friendship, informal). mercenary culture(passion, sense of purpose, fast pace, winning is very important, competitive). fragmented culture (no friendship, work at the org not for it). communal culture (friendship, high focus.
ad hoc committee committee created for specific short term purpose
standing committee permanent charged with performing a reoccurring task
task force committee established to investigate a major problem or pending decision
informal organization and the grapevine interaction stemming from personal rather than official relationships. coworkers have lunch , start a union. communicate through the grapevine
why is it hard for large businesses to have organizational charts? roles are constantly changing
Who was the guest speaker that talked about the organization structures Kathy Laing
operations management all the activities needed to produce goods and services
why has employment declined in manufacturing jobs outsourced jobs to other nations. cost more to make goods in U.S. low demand for manufactured goods
what is the good news for manufacturers manufacturing makes money for U.S 60% of exports are manufactured. jobs will open in the future. jobs are decreasing but productivity is increasing because people are good at what they do.
reshoring insourcing, bringing manufacturing jobs back to US
why are U.S manufacturing companies reshoring? expensive shipping costs from other nations. quality and safety issues in other nations. faster product development in U.S
mass production manufacturing process. lowers the cost required to produce a large number of similar products
analytical process breaks raw materials into different component parts.
What should U.S firms focus on to be competitive in the global marketplace? 1. Meet needs of customers. improve product quality 2. motivate employees to improve productivity 3. select suppliers with high quality raw materials for low prices. 4. use computer aided systems 5. improve control 6. go green
synthetic process combines raw materials to create a finished product
3 major activities in operations management research & development. planning for production. operations control
what steps have U.S firms taken to regain a competitive edge in the global marketplace? Increase productivity. Innovate. Have highly skilled individuals. Reshoring
utility the ability of a good or service to satisfy a human need
form utility converting raw materials, finances, and information into finished products. (making the stuff we want)
What is the purpose of manufacturing provide utility to customers or satisfy a human need
Describe the conversion process production inputs or focus (the idea). conversion- plan execute, evaluate, improve (magnitude of change). completed good
How is utility related to form utility there are 4 types of utility (goods that satisfies people) - form (making it), place(where can i buy it), time(when can i buy it), and possession (how much and get my receipt)
magnitude of change the degree to which the resources changed during conversion process (ex. Apples to make apple cider changed a lot)
service economy American economy is mostly service. more effort is devoted to production of services than to production of goods
how is production of services similar to production of manufactured goods? both have to go through the conversion process and identify needs of the customer and deliver something to them
how can service firms measure customer satisfaction online surveys that evaluate food, quality , atmosphere. social media.
describe how research and development leads to new products
what is the difference between basic research, applied research and development and implementation basic is brainstorming. applied is filtering out the bad ideas development is picking an idea and making it
why are product extension and refinement important keep people buying the same product you have to refine it (like the Apple iphone) and add new features
what are major elements of design planning Product line (lots of options) Production capacity (how many phones do you think we can make in a week) Technology (who is doing the work? people or machines)
what is capacity and why is capacity important for a manufacturing business or service business How many products your gonna make in a certain time. it affects facilities planning later and determines how much space we need in building (don't want too much or too little)
what factors should be considered when selecting a site for a new manufacturing facility location (close to major customers). availability and cost of labor. quality of life in new location. cost of land. zoning laws, taxes. financial support from govt. other - large amounts of energy or water Human resources. Plant layout
what is the objective of operational planning determine how many products you are going to make in a certain period of time
what four steps are used to accomplish objective of operational planning 1. select a planning horizon- DUE DATE. 2. Estimate market demand- How many you gonna sell? 3.Market demand x capacity- they should be equal 4. adjusting products to meed demand - make sure demand and capacity are equal
why is selecting a supplier important make sure that they are reliable and give you a good deal on products for operations control
how can a business firm improve the quality of its products or services Benchmarking (compare yourself with better quality firms). continuous improvement. statistical process control (taking samples from works in progress to make sure its good). statistical quality control (works in progress and finished products are good)
How are services different than manufacturing goods? customer is more involved, consumed immediately, has to be in close proximity, labor intensive, intangible
how do service businesses build relationships w/ customers through social media
what is research and development activities intended to identify new ideas that have potential to be a good or service
What are the 3 planning steps involved in converting an idea into a good R&D (idea) Design Planning (sketch) Facilities Planning (where you gonna make it-studio) Operational Planning (How much you gonna make in a week)
Design planning creating a plan or prototype to convert your idea into a reality
Labor intensive vs. capital intensive labor is people do most of the work (low initial costs, high operating costs). capital is machines do most of work (high initial costs, low operating costs)
What determines if a business manufactures in an existing factory does it have enough space. how much will it cost to renovate
plant layout (process layout vs. product layout vs. fixed layout) the design of the new factory space. process layout - different facets of production are in different corners of the room. product layout - assembly line. fixed-product too big to move around, workers move
What do you do when demand > capacity for a product? demand < capacity people want more? increase production, outsource work to other manufacturers, build another factory. people dont want it? fire employees, less days of work, sell a factory, make somethin else
what is difference between operations control and operational planning Operations control is actually making the product and planning is planning out the process
what are 4 areas in operations control purchasing. inventory control. scheduling. quality control
What are the factors that need to be considered when purchasing Price. quality. reliability. credit terms. shipping costs
Inventory control managing your inventories (raw materials, works in progress, and finished products) and minimize holding and out of stock costs
what are 3 types of inventory raw materials. works in progress. finished goods.
what are 2 types of storage costs holding or storage costs. stock out costs (running out of inventory)
Materials requirements planning (MRP) computerized system that integrates production planning and inventory control
Just in time inventory system Get materials right on time so that you dont have to pay inventory costs
scheduling ensuring materials are at the right place at the right time
Other way to improve quality quality circles . inspections. Six Sigma. TQM
quality circle team of employees who solve problems of product quality
Six Sigma relies on statistical data to eliminate defects for a firm's products and services. similar to TQM with more top level support
ISO international organization for standardization -network of national standards to develop quality standards
Lean manufacturing concept built on idea of eliminating waste from activities required to produce a product or service
advantages of lean manufacturing reduce resources required to make a product. efficient use of employee time. improve quality. increase profit.
automation use of machines to do most of the work
computer aided design vs. computer aided manufacturing vs. Computer integrate manufacturing CAD-use of computers to aid in development of products CAM-use of computers to plan and control manufacturing process (speed and quality improve) CIM-designs products and control the machinery that makes it
what are benefits of Computer integrated manufacturing improved flexibility. more efficient scheduling. higher product quality. more competitive
Flexible manufacturing system combine electronic machines and CIM in a single production system to make more variety of products in a shorter time. intermittent process
Created by: simmonsss



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