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WVSOM -- Physio

Determinants of Cardiac Output

Cardiac Output volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute
Stroke Volume Volume of blood ejected per beat
Heart Rate Number of heart beats/minute
Cardiac Output Equation CO = HR x SV
Stroke Volume Equation SV = EDV - ESV
Schematic for the SV component of the Equation Preload (Starling Effect) Contractility Afterload Compliance
Ejection Fraction EF = (SV)/(EDV)
Inotropy contractility
Starlings Law As volume increases, length increases and the greater the contraction
Compliance Equation (delta)V/(delta)P
Increasing Preload causes Increasing EDP Increasing EDV Increases SV and CO
Decreased HR causes less time for filling and results in a lesser force
Afterload force it has to overcome (arterial pressure)
Increasing Afterload Increases pre-ejection pressure Increases ESV Decreases SV and CO
Increasing contractility Decreases ESV Increases SV
Lowering Compliance decreased EDV Decreases SV and CO
length affects tension and velocity
Ejection Fraction in normal health 55%
What is the only way to change the slope of the left ventricular pressure change contractility
What affects contractility? (3) Positive inotropic effects
Postive inotropes caused by open Ca channels inhibition of the Na/Ca exchanger Inhibit plasma membrane pump Activations of B1 receptors
what cardiac drug induces positive inotropic effects? Cardiac glycosides (digitalis)
Negative inotropes Ca channel blockers Low Ca High extracellular Na
Determinants of O2 demand on the heart afterload extent of muscle shortening heart rate inotropic state heart size
60-90% of cardiac ATP derived from ________ free fatty acids
Calculating CO using the Fick Principle: "oxygen is the indicator"
Cardiac Output equation using Fick Principle CO = O2 consumption / (O2 pulmonary vein - )2 pulmonary artery)
Created by: tjamrose