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CD 4501 Exam 1

Neuroscience: Exam 1 at UCM

QuestionAnswer
What does the CNS do? Conceptualizes an idea and translates the idea into a set of motor commands, which are properly sequenced, then executed.
What does the CNS do? (2) Translates sensory information into perceptions (a virtual reality), into memory, which can be recalled at will (or with difficulty, or forgotten).
What does the CNS do? (3) Analyzes the incoming auditory waveform, identifies it as a phonetic stream, recognizes it as language, comprehends the message.
What does the CNS do? (4) Monitors CO2 levels in the bloodstream, adjusts cerebral blood pressure to keep you from fainting; controls respiratory muscles to oxygenate tissues.
What does the CNS do? (5) Orchestrates the immune response to invading pathogens (bacteria, viruses).
What does the CNS do? (6) Monitors stretch in muscles and tendons to compensate for changes in load; as the head tilts it automatically adjusts tension in antigravity muscles to maintain the center of gravity between the feet.
What does the CNS do? (7) Automatically lifts the foot when a sharp object is stepped upon, with no conscious thought (until afterward).
What does the CNS do? (8) In response to sound, rapidly (80 km/hr) deflects the eyes to focus on the object (producing the sound).
What does the CNS do? (9) Gives us the ability to contemplate logical and moral dilemmas, experience rage, pleasure, satiety, infer the inner state of another person (Theory of Mind, mirror neurons)
How do we take images of the nervous system? Conventional X-ray,Tomography, computerized tomography, MRIs, fMRIs, MRS, fMRS, SPECT, PET, Angiography, EEG, ABR, MEG
Describe the process of conventional X-rays. X-rays pass through the body, making an image on medium (paper, videotape, etc). Damages tissue, so exposure must be limited. Appears in grayscale. Soft tissue is dark, dense is light.
What is tomography? Tomography uses a rotating camera to blur all structures not at the focal point, focusing on a particular structure (like the cochlea) in a plane.
Describe an MRI. Strong magnetic field aligns hydrogen protons in the nucleus. Strong radiofrequency pulse temporarily excites nuclei to higher energy levels. As the protons return to their previous state, they emit radio waves which are detected, and imaged.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of an MRI? MRI uses no ionizing radiation, so it's safer unless ferrous metal is present in the body. It produces highly detailed images.
Are cochlear implants and MRIs compatible? No. Med-El is the only device labeled as safe for (low strength) MRI. The magnets within the device can shift, and third degree burns can be caused by too strong of a current in the wires.
What scans are compatible with cochlear implants? CT scans.
What are the differences between T1 and T2 weighted MRIs?
What is one important principle that is key to fMRIs? 1. blood contains iron, which is the oxygen-carrying part of hemoglobin inside red blood cells. Whenever any part of the brain becomes active, the small blood vessels in that localized region dilate, causing more blood to rush in.
What is one important principle that is key to fMRIs? (2) Freshly oxygenated blood pours into any activated brain structure, reducing the amount of oxygen-free (deoxy) hemoglobin. This causes a small change in the magnetic field.
What is an EEG (electroencephalography) test? Electrodes are attached to the scalp and the electrical activity of synchronously firing nerve fibers in the brain can be detected. Abnormal firing patterns suggest the presence of lesions (e.g., seizure activity). Measures function.
What is a MEG (magnetoencephalography) test? (SQUID, superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer to detect very small magnetic fields generated during nerve fiber firing. Expensive but precise and quiet.
What is a SPECT (single photon emission computer tomography) test? Uses radioisotopes (radionuclides) to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) indicating which brain areas are active during a task. A rotating camera, or a ring of detectors can create 3D images.
What is a PET (positron emission tomography) test? Same as SPECT, just more expensive, better sensitivity and resolution.
What do peripheral vs. central mean? toward the outside/inside
What does epi- mean? on, following, outside, over
What do supra- vs. sub- mean? above/below, under
What do apical vs. basal mean? towards the tip (of a pyramid)/towards the base
What do lateral vs. medial mean? farthest/closest to the midsagittal plane
What do caudal vs. rostral mean? toward the tail/beak
What do anterior vs. posterior mean? toward the front surface/back surface
What do ventral vs. dorsal mean? toward the belly (or abdomen)/back
What do Proximal vs. distal mean? toward/away from the center or trunk
What do superior vs. inferior: mean? upward (toward vertex)/downward
What does transverse or horizontal plane mean? cross-wise relative to the long axis of the body (the longitudinal axis)
What does frontal or coronal plane mean? vertical plane divides the body front to back; at right angle to the sagittal plane
What does the sagittal plane mean? running parallel to the longitudinal axis; mid-sagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves, parasagittal is off center
What do supine vs. prone mean? lying on the back/face
What do ipsilateral vs. contralateral mean? on the same/opposite side of the body
What constitutes the Central Nervous System (CNS)? Brain, spinal cord, and retina and optic nerve.
What makes up the Periphery Nervous System 12 cranial nerves and the spinal nerves (that come from the spinal column).
How does the embryonic brain develop? (1) Prosencephalon (forward, or forebrain) is the most forward structure of the developing embryo. It develops into the telencephalon and the diencephalon
How does the embryonic brain develop? (2) Telencephalon (end) becomes the cerebral cortex + corpus striatum (caudate nucleus + putamen + globus pallidus) = cerebrum
How does the embryonic brain develop? (3) Diencephalon (through) becomes the thalamus and hypothalmus Mesencephalon (middle) becomes the midbrain
How does the embryonic brain develop? (4) Rhombencephalon (a hollow) becomes the pons, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata (often referred to as the brainstem, but some include the midbrain as part of the brainstem)
What is the cortex? What is it made of? The "bark"/gray matter formed from axons of nerve cells covered in myelin sheath. It is covered in nerve cells, connected by 1,000s of km, and is in 6 layers.
What are the first three top layers of cortex? intracortical projections from association or commissural cortex originate and/or terminate in these layers
What is the fourth layer of cortex for? sensory, receives ascending (thalamocortical) projections from the thalamus
What is the purpose of the fifth and sixth layer of cortex? output zones, efferent projections, send axons to other (lower) brain areas (striatum, thalamus, brainstem, spinal cord). These layers are more pronounced in cortex with a motor function.
How are the layers arranged? Vertical columns.
What is the purpose of the posterior cerebral cortex? It is sensory, and receives, processes, and stores info. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary (Entry, elaboration, and integration).
What is the purpose of the Anterior Cerebral Cortex? Motor/output oriented. Tertiary, Secondary, Primary (Entry, elaboration, and execution).
What makes up the Motor Unit? The three zones (Entry, elaboration and execution)
Define Contralateral motor control: Generally, one side of the brain controls the other side of the body. Damage on one side of the brain effects the other side of the body.
Define Ipsilateral motor control: Lesions in the brain that occur before the point of decussation (crossing over to the other side) will cause problems on the same side of the body.
Define bilateral speech motor control: Midline muscles are usually innervated by muscles with inputs from both hemispheres to keep movement symmetrical.
What are the unilateral language mechanisms? In most (right handed) people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language. Lefties may have bilateral.
What are some basic principles of cortical organization? The posterior part of the brain tends to be more concerned with sensory function, the anterior part with motor control, and cognition and regulating emotion, especially the prefrontal contex.
What is the main function of the frontal lobe? executive functions such as planning, organzing, and regulating, and conceptualizing/executing motor movements like speech
What are the main functions of the parietal lobe? somatosensory, accessory speech processing to spoken and written words/language (angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus)
What is the main function of the occipital lobe? visual processing
What is the main function of the temporal lobe? memory (hippocampus), hearing, processing olfactory sensations (uncus), auditory and language processing (Wernicke's area)
What are the main functions of the limbic lobe? cognitive flexibility, shifting attention, experiencing and expressing emotion, pleasure, pain problems: worrying, OCD, oppositional-defiant behavior, addictive behaviors, road rage, eating disorders
What is the limbic system? It is involved in experiencing emotions and includes the cingulate gyrus, the amygdala, the hippocampus, the ventral tegmental area nucleus accumbens, fornix, mammillary bodies, and connections to the basal ganglia
What are the basal ganglia? the "extrapyramidal system".Involved in movement (Parkinson's disease, PD, is an example), procedural learning and memory. Striatum, Globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra. Suppress unwanted motor activity.
What are the dominant hemisphere characteristics for the left hemisphere? Language, logic, sequential activities; more gray matter; speech, perception, reading, writing, and processing; complex voluntary movements.
What are the dominant hemisphere characteristics for the right hemisphere? Music, gestalt (big picture), holistic thought, visual-spatial representations; larger/heavier; social cues; facial recognition; touch; sense of direction; music; nonlanguage sounds.
What is the hypothalamus?
Created by: bam51740