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Speech Science

04 Physics of Sound- Complex Tones

pure tone A sound that has energy at only one frequency
sine wave wave form produced by a pure tone.
sinusoids Another word for Pure tone
complex tone non-sinusoid tone that has energy at more than one frequency -Makes up the majority of sounds you hear
An octave jump Doubling the frequency 2 to 4, 4 to 8, 8 to 16 etc...
Elasticity will take the object back to it's normal resting state
Inertia will take the object will go pass it's resting state- stretch
Overtones contribute to what quality of a sound? Fullness
Timbre The quality of a musical note or sound or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as voices or musical instruments. i.e.- You can tell the difference b/w a guitar and bass even if they play the same note.
fundamental frequency -The rate at which a sound wave repeats itself. -Determines the pitch that you hear.
Harmonics whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency
Any complex tone can be described as a combination of many simple periodic waves (i.e. sine waves) or partials, each with its own frequency of vibration, amplitude and phase.
Amplitude vs. Harmonics The higher the harmonic the lower the amplitude (intensity).
Name of X or horizontal access abscissa
Name of Y or Vertical axis ordinate
Distance between each harmonic is equal to the Fundamental frequency
Frequency vs. Period The higher the frequency, the shorter the period. -On wave more waves closer togther -on line graph harmonics are further apart
The rate at which the harmonics decline is due to the -nature of the vibrating source -Each vibrating source has it’s own unique vibrating properties and therefore the harmonics decline at different rates. This affects the Timber of the sound
What is the Fundamental frequency The rate at which a complex tone repeats itself
The Fundamental frequency determines the pitch you hear
If a complex tone has energy at different frequencies, why do we only perceive one pitch? The pitch one hears is associated with the rate at which the tone repeats itself or vibrates (and the harmonic structure of the sound) and not the presence or absence of sound energy at a particular frequency.
When an object vibrates, it vibrates not only as a whole, but as halves, thirds, fourths etc…
A tone’s harmonic structure is responsible for the tone’s Pitch, since the fundamental frequency determines the “spacing” of the various harmonics
Created by: aramos139



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