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OT Skills

Splinting Intro

SPLINTING23456
SPLINT VS ORTHOSIS splinting is temporary orthosis is made of higher temp material
Static splint immobilizes prevents deformities prevents soft tissue contracture substitute for loss of motor function
Dynamic splint control motion correct deformity fracture alignment substitute for loss of motion
Handling characteristics memory- ability to return to its original shape drapability ( ease of conformability with minimum effort elasticity- resistance to stretch bonding- ability to stick to itself self finishing edges shrinkage- shrinks when cooled
Splint components c-bar, connector bar, cross bar, deviation bar metacarpal bar, reinforcement bar, palmar phalangeal bar cuff thumb post forearm trough, palmar trough
Arches of hand proximal transverse- croses distal carpals (wrist area- only rigid arch ) distal transverse- crosses distal palmar crease Longitudinal-runs long. through hand
Creases aligned with joints shows where joints are and can help map out pressure points distal palmar crease (MCP) Thenar crease- (cmc of thumb)
Abnormal patterns occure due to mechanical or neurological change in hand
Splinting positions hand to substitute for motor control ( radial deviation splint prevents ulnar drifting of fingers) prevent deformity- airplane splint keeps arms elevated to prevemt contractures in axilla (burns) rest an extremity (hand splint, wrist cock up)
Mechanical advantage splint allows for distribution of force over a large area so force is minimized at most proximal and distal ends and therefore skin damage (resitance arm/effort arm) x resistance force =effort force mechanical advantage is at least 2:1 3 point pressure system- 3 forces with middle forces directed oppositely of the other 2 (unidirectional-forces on one plance)(multidirectional-forces in multiple planes)
4 ways skin and soft tissue can be damaged degree- skin can become ischemic ( blocked circulation depending on load exertion) Duration- low stress over time can eventually cause tissue damage repittition- of stress like dynamic splinting can cause inflammation or redness direction- 3 directions of force 1. distraction or tension 2. compression 3. shear
Minimize stress repetition in dynamic splints by distribute force maintain 90 degree angle of pull to prevent compression (and distraction and streched ligament) leverage
Minimize compression by maintain perpendicular force avoid bony prominences selection of strap width conform material to body part keep splint at 1/2 width of forearm and hand
Created by: natkat