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Speech Disorders

Lesson 2

TermDefinition
Common Characteristics of Normative Studies -Used only one word to elicit a response -Some imitative responses obtained in all studies -Facilitating phonetic contexts not controlled
Differences for Normative study- Wellman (1931) -narrowly selected population -criteria - 75%
Differences for Normative study- Poole (1934) narrowly selected population criteria - 100%
Differences for Normative study- Templin (1957) -attempted to mirror general population -age 3 was youngest -six (6) month intervals -accepted imitations -did not screen hearing -tested three (3) word positions -criteria - 75% -words varied with older children
Differences for Normative study- Prather, Hendrick and Kern (1975) -attempted to mirror pop & provided distribution data -2 yr olds -tested @ 4 month intervals -tested only 2 word positions -criteria- 50 % & 75% -words constant across age groups -avoided imitation -screened for hearing but no passing criteria -
Differences for Normative study- Arlt & Goodban (1976) -Claimed to control for SES but failed to support claims -Used imitative responses -tested phonemes in all three word positions -Criteria- 75%
Differences for Normative study- Smit(1990) -997 children ages 3;0-9;0 -tested initial and final positions only -used both spontaneous and imitative responses -Criteria - 50% & 75% -reported on gender trends
General Points of Agreement for Normative Studies -Nasal, stops, glides are acquired earliest -Fricatives, affricates, and consonant clusters are acquired later
Limitations of Normative Studies -Provide only an overview of sound development -Unable to provide a particular course of development for children
What have Studies on Speech Patterns/ Phonologic Development told us? -Simplification and restructuring of adult words is SYSTEMATIC not RANDOM -The child is an ACTIVE learner in the process of sound acquisition -These tendencies are generally “universal” or observed in children learning other languages
Pre-linguistic Period Birth - 1 Year
PHONATION STAGE -Part of pre-linguistic -birth to 1 month -Perception: no identifiable responses to speech distinctions Production: speech sound production is RARE; syllabic nasals; reflexive vocalizations.
COOING STAGE 2-3 months -Can discrminate b/w PLACE of articulation for stops from nasal & glides, stops from velars & b/w vowels even embedded in a syllable -Can NOT discriminate VOICING & PLACE OF FRICATIVES -make velar-like productions & round back vowels
VOCAL PLAY OR EXPANSION STAGE -4-6 months -Pitch contours can be discriminated -Production: explores vocal tract mechanism by squealing, growling, producing – gains better control of laryngeal and articulatory functions. -raspberries; repetition of vowels; some CV, marginal babblin
CANONICAL BABBLING -Pitch contours perceived -reduplicated babbling, stops, nasals, glides, & lax vowels -develops due to physiologic maturation & more adult-like development of the vocal tract. -back sounds decre while front sounds incre -no control of vocalizations
VARIEGATED BABBLING/NON-REDUPLICATED BABBLING -10-12 months -use of asymmetrical syllable productions,with an increase in the variety of CV sequences (ie baba to ba du). -increase in quantity syllable shapes C1 V1 C1 V2 (mommy) and C1 V1 C2 V2 (patty) -some true workds -prosody more adult like
JARGONING/TRANSITION TO SPEECH -12-18 months -Vocalizations ARE CONTROLLED -syllable structures consist primarily of CV, C 1V1 C1 V1, (momma) C 1V1 C1 V2 (mommi); CVC (pop)and VC (in) -About 50 words by 18 months -preferred consonants are /m, h, w/ & a few front fricatives.
PHONOLOGY OF FIRST 50 WORDS -Occurs during the JARGONING/TRANSITION TO SPEECH stage (age 12-18 months) -theory that says a child selects early words (word shape, V and C patterns) on phonetic grounds); and that children implement simplification strategies of acquisition;
MARKED PHONOLOGICAL GROWTH -Part of the PHONEMIC PERIOD -18 mos-4 yrs -by age 2, child has evidence of front fricatives -some affricates /ts/ -as well as previously noted sounds & classes (stops, nasals) -changes to include VCV, VC, & CVC -MORE ASYMMETRICAL SYLLABLE SHAPES
Phonetic Tendencies of Two-Year Olds -CV shapes noted with CVC words emerging -Disyllabic syllable shapes noted in over 50% of the sample -Stops at all 3 places of articulation in over 50% -nasals, glides & fricatives in word-initial position -Mean % consonants correct 70% (43-91%)
RAPID EXPANSION OF PHONEMIC REPERTOIRE -2-3 years -All syllable shapes -word initial clusters -STOPS in all three word positions -NASALS, FRICATIVES, GLIDES typically occurring in word-initial position -VOICELESS STOPS, FRICATIVE & LIQUID IN WORD-FINAL -VOICED STOPS IN INITIAL
PRESCHOOL END OF PHONEMIC/BEGINNING OF STABILIZATION PERIOD 3-5 yrs
Age 3 -ALL PHONEME CLASSES ARE EMERGING -all vowels are mastered; intelligibility increases to 80%. -Following processes are suppressed: unstressed syllable deletion, final consonant deletion, diminutization, velar fronting, consonant assimilatio
STABILIZATION PERIOD BEGINS
AGES 4-5 -production of phonemes stabilizes across most syllable shapes, word-positions, and phonetic contexts - intelligibility is 100%. -MOST PHONEME CLASSES ARE STABILIZED’ -SIMPLIFICATION STRATEGIES ARE SUPPRESSED FOR THE MOST PART.
Common "articulation" of Intelligible 4 year olds includes: -devoicing of word-final consonants (obstruents- everything except fricatives & affricates) -production difficulties with voice and voiceless /th/ -lisps (dental & interdental) -deletion of weak syllables -fronting of the velar nasal to alveolar /n/
Created by: aramos139