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Speech Disorders

Lesson 1

TermDefinition
Percentage of preschoolers with speech sound disorders 10-15%
Percentage of children with speech disorders exhibit general academic difficulties, specifically in writing, reading, spelling, and mathematics that exhibit speech sound disorders 50-70%
Parts of the Articulatory System 1.Bony Structures (Mandible & CN V– Trigeminal) 2.Hard Palate (immovable articulator) 3.Tongue- primary articular (muscle) (CN XII– 4.Hypoglossal Nerve) 5.Teeth (immovable articulator) 6.Lip and Facial Muscles (CN VII -Facial Nerve)
Parts of Resonatory System Soft Palate (moveable articulator)– CNX– Vagus & CN XI– Accessory nerve
Parts of the Phonatory System larynx & pharynx – CNX (Vagus)
Main component that controls the Respiratory System Spinal Nerves
Wernicke’s area Located in the temporal lobe, how meaning of words is understood (due to previous mapping and organization of language information, including features of the speech sound system)
Broca’s area Located in the frontal lobe, plans patterns of skilled movements needed for speech production: -supplementary motor cortex to the primary motor cortex -Sends impulses through projection nerve fibers to the cranial nerves
Cerebellum -Further coordinates and fine tunes motor movements needed for speech production.
Percentage of disorder children with speech sound disorder 67%
Tongue -Comprised of skeletal muscles (striated) which accounts for its high contractile capability -four intrinsic muscles which create the visible tongue (Hypoglossal Nerve) -four extrinsic muscles which support the tongue (each is attached to a bone)
Intrinsic Muscles of the tongue -Superior Longitudinal, Verticalis, Transverse, -Inferior Longitudinal
Superior Longitudinal Tongue Muscle -Intrinsic Tongue Muscle -shorten, widens, turns tongue tip up, turn up sides of tongue
Verticalis Tongue Muscle -Intrinsic Tongue Muscle -flattens and widens the tongue
Transverse Tongue Muscle -Intrinsic Tongue Muscle -narrows and elongates the tongue
Inferior Longitudinal Tongue Muscle -Intrinsic Tongue Muscle -shortens, widens, turns tongue tip down
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles Genioglossus, Hyloglossus, Styloglossus, Palatoglossus
Genioglossus Tongue Muscle -Extrinsic Tongue Muscle -Protrudes and retracts the tongue
Hyloglossus Tongue Muscle -Extrinsic Tongue Muscle -Depresses and retracts the tongue
Styloglossus Tongue Muscle -Extrinsic Tongue Muscle -Moves tongue upward and backward
Palatoglossus Tongue Muscle -Extrinsic Tongue Muscle -Pulls the back of the tongue up
slow twitched fibers are located back muscles of the tongue
fast-twitched fibers are located front muscles of the tongue
Muscle Spindle afferents in the tongue Relay “messages” of sensation, movement, and movement in space to the cerebellum (not to the central cortex) contributing to an internal feedback system
Obicularis Oris Muscle around the mouth. Responsible for bilabials, nasals and plosive.
Buccinator Muscle responsible for the retraction of the lips
Nerve that innervates the Mandible Cranial Nerve V – Trigeminal Nerve
Basic function of the respiratory system is to push air into the airway composed of the larynx, the oral cavity and the nasal cavity.
Basic function of the larynx is to regulate the airflow from the lungs to create both voiced and voiceless sounds.
Phonology rules of a language (central or in area of the brain). -Language component which governs the patterning of speech sounds into meaningful units -concerned with syllable structure and distinctive feature -an auditorily learned behavior
Phonetic Motor production (peripheral/ oral cavity)
Phonologic theory of Segments The continuum of speech is interpreted and organized in terms of phonologic segments; we HEAR speech but PERCEIVE segments - e.g. cup - We hear a word that changes over time, but we perceive (psychologically) three segments
Phonologic theory of distinctive Features Each segment is made up of features - e.g. [+ bilabial]: p, b, f,v, m, w [- labial ]: other phonemes
Phonologic theory of Levels of Representation -all phonemes have two (2) levels of representation: a) underlying level and b) surface level
Phonologic theory of Phonologic Rules -connect the two levels of representation within a given language. i.e. cab vs. cap -Rule of the English language: vowels are lengthened before voiced consonants
What is Meaningful speech Motor phenomenon dependent not only on linguistic input from the auditory modality & sophisticated cortical interactions in the cerebral cortex, but also on PROPRIOCEPTION which provides feedback to the oral-sensory system to refine & coordinate movement.
Proprioception includes: Kinesthesia AND Tactile
Kinesthesia Awareness of body movement and position
Tactile Sense of touch or contact
Input for the Feedback Loop -Speech information is processed auditorily and organized and stored in the temporal lobe -Articulatory gestures, via muscle spindles, send information regarding motor movement and sensation to the cerebellum
The Feedback Loop Output -A motor plan is executed (frontal lobe), with coordination of movements taking place in the cerebellum -Info regarding movement is sent to the articulators via CN's -Muscles of the articulators perform these organized and planned motor speech acts
Van Riper approach to articulation -1930 to 1950- Traditional stimulus approach by Charles Van Riper. Designed to work with one phoneme at a times, then syllables, word, phrases, simple sentences, complex sentences, conversational speech. This approach is still used today
Sensory-motor approach 1960 - 1975 (McDonald) - stressed phonetic environment. -Children produce certain sounds more easily in certain phonetic environments. Work on one sound at a time.
Multiple Phoneme Approach 1975 -allows clinicians to work on more than one sound at a time. Start where ever the child is stimuable.
Distinctive feature/ Phonologic approaches -1970- patterns to speech sound errors/categorize by features. -Late 1976- Phonology (David Ingram)- took distinctive features to next level buy looking at syllable structure.
Minimal pair therapy 1976 (continued)- Minimal pair therapy (Fred Weiner). Cognitive –linguistic approach.
Other phonologic approaches 1980’s- (Paden & Hodson). Studies on generalization learning pattern began. Cognitive –linguistic approach. Develop an assessment that was easier than distinctive approach.
phonologic approaches in 1990's Refinement of previous approaches continued. Research in generalization learning continued.
Created by: aramos139