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Clinicals - Micro 4

For clinicals in Microbiology dept: Genus Shigella through Yersinia

QuestionAnswer
What important species of pathogenic bacteria falls under the genus "Shigella?" Shigella sonnei
Is Shigella gram-neg or gram-pos? Shigella is gram neg.
What does Shigella sonnei look like? Rods.
Is Shigella sonnei encapsulated or unencapsulated? Shigella sonnei is unencapsulated.
Is Shigella sonnei motile or non-motile? Shigella sonnei is non-motile.
How would you classify the respiratory functions of Shigella sonnei? Shigella sonnei is a facultative anaerobe.
What kind of growth media should you use with Shigella sonnei? Hektoen agar.
Is Shigella sonnei intracellular or extracellular? Shigella sonnei is extracellular.
How is Shigella sonnei transmitted? There are 3 ways. 1) Fecal-oral. 2) Flies! 3) Contaminated food or water.
What disease do you get from an infection of Shigella sonnei? Bacillary dysentery, or Shigellosis.
How do you treat Shigellosis as caused by Shigella sonnei? Ciprofloxacin or azithromycin.
How do you prevent Shigella sonnei, or Shigellosis? 1) Protect food and water supplies from contamination 2) Vaccines exist but are in trial stage.
How do you diagnose Shigella sonnei in the lab? Culture of Hektoen agar or other media used for intestinal pathogens.
Name 3 important species of pathogenic bacteria that fall under the genus "Staphylococcus." 1) Staphylococcus aureus 2) Staphylococcus epidermidis 3) Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Staphylococcus stains gram pos or gram neg? Staphylococcus stains darkly gram pos, therefore, it is darkly blue or purple.
What is the shape of Staphylococcus? Staphylococcus is a round cocci. (It's really in the name.)
Staphylococcus looks like what under the microscope? Staphylococcus looks like bunches of blue or purple grapes.
Staphylococcus is encapsulated or unencapsulated? Either.
Staphylococcus is motile or non-motile? Staphylococcus is non-motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Staphylococcus? Staphylococcus is a facultative anaerobe.
What kind of growth medium should be used with Staphylococcus? Enriched broth or blood medium.
Is Staphylococcus an intracellular or extracellular pathogen? Staphylococcus can be either extracellular or a facultative intracellular pathogen.
How is Staphylococcus areus transmitted? It is human flora on mucus membranes. It can enter through a wound.
What kind of toxinoses can be caused by Staphylococcus areus? 1) Toxic shock syndrome 2) Staphylococcal food poisoning.
What kind of surface or skin diseases can be caused by Staphylococcus areus? 1) Localized skin infection 2) Impetigo (diffuse)
What kinds of diseases can be caused by deeper infections of Staphylococcus areus? 1) Deep localized infections 2) Acute infective endocarditis 3) Septicemia 4) Necrotizing pneumonia
How do you treat skin diseases caused by Staphylococcus areus? Incision and drainage of localized lesions.
How do you treat diseases caused by Staphylococcus areus within the body? 1) Nafcillin and oxacillin 2) Vancomycin for MRSA.
How do you prevent infection by Staphylococcus areus? Barrier precautions. Wash hands. Disinfect fomites.
How do you diagnose Staphylococcus areus in the lab? 1) Microscopy of strongly gram pos grape clusters 2) Catalaze pos AND coagulase pos 3) Deep yellow hemolytic colonies on enriched media.
How is Staphylococcus epidermidis transmitted? Human flora in skin and anterior nares.
What diseases can be caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis? Infection of prostheses, valves, and catheters. Things that go in the body.
How do you treat Staphylococcus epidermidis? Vancomycin.
How do you diagnose Staphylococcus epidermidis in the lab? 1) Microscopy of strongly gram pos grape clusters 2) Catlaze pos BUT coagulase neg 3) Novobiocin sensitive 4) White nonhemolytic colonies round in enriched media.
How is Staphylococcus saprophyticus transmitted? It is part of normal vaginal flora.
Staphylococcus saprophyticus causes what diseases? Cystitis in women.
How do you treat Staphylococcus saprophyticus? Penicillin G.
How do you diagnose Staphylococcus saprophyticus in the lab? 1) Microscopy of strongly gram pos grape clusters 2) Catlaze pos BUT coagulase neg 3) Novobiocin RESISTANCE 4) White nonhemolytic colonies round in enriched media.
Name 3 important pathogenic species of bacteria that fall under the genus "Streptococcus?" 1) Streptococcus agalactiae 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae 3) Streptococcus pyogenes
Streptococcus is gram neg or gram pos? Streptococcus is gram pos, so it is blue or purple.
What is the shape of Streptococcus? Ovoid or spherical.
Streptococcus is encapsulated or unencapsulated? Either.
Streptococcus often forms up in __ or __. pairs or chains
Streptococcus is motile or non-motile? Streptococcus is non-motile.
How would you classify the respiratory functions of Streptococcus? Streptococcus is a facultative anaerobe.
What kind of growth medium is best used with Streptococcus? Blood agar.
Streptococcus is intracellular or extracellular? Streptococcus is extracellular.
How is Streptococcus agalactiae transmitted? It is human flora in vagina, urethral mucous membranes, and rectum. So it can be transmitted during birth or by sexual contact.
Streptococcus agalactiae can cause __ and __ in neonates. meningitis and septicemia
Streptococcus agalactiae can cause __ in postpartem women. endocarditis
Streptococcus agalactiae can cause opportunistic infections with __ and __. septicemia and pneumonia
How do you treat Streptococcus agalactiae? 1) Penicillin G 2) Ampicillin 3) Aminoglycoside in case of lethal infection.
How do you prevent Streptococcus agalactiae infections? There is no vaccine.
How do you diagnost Streptococcus agalactiae in the lab? 1) Culture shows large colonies with B-hemolysis 2) Catalase neg 3) Hydrolyzes sodium hippurate.
How is Streptococcus pneumoniae transmitted? 1) Respiratory droplets 2) Human flora of nasopharynx that spreads when host immunocompromised.
Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause acute __ __ and __ in adults. bacterial pneumonia and meningitidis in adults.
Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause __ __ and __ in children. otitis media and sinusitis
How is Streptococcus pneumoniae treated? 1) Penicillin G 2) Vancomycin if strain resistant to penicillin G.
How do you prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae? 2 vaccines. One for adults (PPV) another for children (PCV).
How do you diagnost Streptococcus pneumoniae in the lab? 1) Microscopy shows gram-pos, encapsulated lancet shaped diplococci 2) a-hemolysis on blood agar and bile soluble with optochin sensitivity 3) Positive Quellung reaction.
How is Streptococcus pyogenes transmitted? 1) Respiratory droplets 2) Direct contact with impetigo lesions.
Streptococcus pyogenes can causes a long list of diseases. What are they? 1) Streptococcal pharyngitis 2) Scarelet fever 3) Rheumatic fever 4) Impetigo and erysipelas 5) Puerperal fever 6) Necrotizing fasciitis.
How do you treat Streptococcus pyogenes? 1) Penicillin G 2) Macrolides (like clarithromycin, azithromycin)
How do you treat necrotizing fasciitis as caused by Streptococcus pyogenes? Drainage and debridement.
How do you prevent Streptococcus pyogenes infections? There is no vaccine. But rapid antibiotic treatment can prevent rheumatic fever.
Cultures of Streptococcus pyogenes will grow on ? Sheep blood agar, forming small, opalescent colonies surrounded by a large zone of B-hemolysis.
How do you diagnost Streptococcus pyogenes in the lab once it has been cultured? 1) Serology for ASO 2) It is very sensitive to bacitracin.
What important species of pathogenic bacteria falls under the genus "Treponema?" Treponema pallidum.
Is Treponema pallidum gram-neg or gram-pos? Treponema pallidum is gram-neg, but stains poorly.
What is the shape of Treponema pallidum? Treponema pallidum is a spirochete.
Is Treponema pallidum motile or non-motile? Treponema pallidum is highly motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Treponema pallidum? Treponema pallidum is aerobic.
Is Treponema pallidum intracellular or extracellular? Treponema pallidum is extracellular.
How is Treponema pallidum transmitted? Sexually.
What disease can be caused by Treponema pallidum? 1) Syphilis 2) Congenital syphilis.
How do you treat Treponema pallidum? 1) Penicillin G 2) Erythromycin 3) Tetracyline
How do you prevent syphilis as caused by Treponema pallidum? 1) Safe sex 2) Antibiotics to pregnant women to prevent transmission. NOTE: No vaccine.
How do you view Treponema pallidum? Dark field microscopy. Treponema pallidum cannot by cultured or viewed on a gram stained smear.
How do you diagnose Treponema pallidum? 1) Serology 2) Trenponemal tests
What important species of bacteria falls under the genus "Vibrio?" Vibrio cholerae.
Is Vibrio cholerae gram-neg or gram-pos? Vibrio choleraeis gram-neg.
Vibrio cholerae is shaped like a __. comma
Is Vibrio cholerae encapsulated or unencapsulated? Vibrio cholerae is unencapsulated.
Is Vibrio cholerae motile or non-motile? Vibrio cholerae is rapidly motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Vibrio cholerae? Vibrio cholerae is a facultative anaerobe.
What medium would you use to culture Vibrio cholerae? 1) Blood agar 2) MacConkey agar stimulated by NaCl
Is Vibrio cholerae intracellular or extracellular? Vibrio cholerae is extracellular.
How is Vibrio cholerae transmitted? Contaminated water or food; especially RAW SEAFOOD.
What disease can be caused by Vibrio cholerae? Cholera. Duh.
How do you treat Vibrio cholerae? 1) Fluid and electrolyte replacement 2) Doxycycline can shorten duration of illness.
How do you prevent Vibrio cholerae? 1) Prevent fecal contamination of food/water 2) Careful food prep.
How do you diagnose Vibrio cholerae in the lab? 1) Culture on blood or MacConkey enhanced by TCBS 2) Pos oxidase test.
What important species of bacteria fall under the genus "Yersinia?" 1) Yersinia pestis 2) Yersinia enterocolitica 3) Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Is Yersinia gram-neg or gram-pos? Yersinia is gram-neg but stains bipolarly, giving it a safety pin appearance.
What is the shape of Yersinia? Yersinia is a small rod.
Is Yersinia encapsulated or unencapsulated? Yersinia is encapsulated.
Is Yersinia motile or non-motile? Yersinia is non-motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Yersinia? Yersinia is a facultative anaerobe.
What growth medium should be used with Yersinia? 1) MacConkey agar 2) CIN agar
Is Yersinia extracellular or intracellular? Yersinia is an intracellular pathogen.
How is Yersinia pestis transmitted? 1) Fleas from animals 2) Ingestion of animal tissues 3) Respiratory droplets.
What diseases can be caused by Yersinia pestis? 1) Bubonic plagues 2) Pneumonic plague
How do you treat Yersinia pestis? 1) Streptomycin (preferred) 2) Gentamicin 3) Tetracycline 4) Supportive therapy for shock.
How do you prevent diseases caused by Yersinia pestis? 1) Formalin plagues vaccine 2) Minimize exposure to rodents and fleas.
How do you diagnose Yersinia pestis in the lab? 1) Gram-neg smear 2) If pneumonic, culture on MacConkey or blood agar.
Created by: IsaacJ