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Clinicals - Micro 3

For clinicals in Microbiology dept: Genus M through Salmonella

QuestionAnswer
What 3 species of important pathogenic bacteria fall under the genus "Mycobacterium?" 1) Mycobacterium leprae 2) Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3) Mycobacterium ulcerans
Is Mycobacterium gram neg or gram pos? Neither. Mycobacterium are acid fast organisms.
What kind of stains can be used to see Mycobacterium under the microscope if they can't be gram stained? Fite's stain, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, and Kinyoun stain.
Mycobacterium appear how under a microscope? Mycobacterium long, slender rods.
Are Mycobacterium encapsulated or unencapsulated? Mycobacterium are unencapsulated.
How would you describe the motility of Mycobacterium? Mycobacterium are nonmotile.
How could you classify the respiration of Mycobacterium? Mycobacterium are aerobic.
Are Mycobacterium extracellular or intracellular? Mycobacterium are extracellular.
What kind of growth media would be used to grow Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lab? Mycobacterium tuberculosis would grow on Lowenstein-Jensen agar.
How is Mycobacterium leprae transmitted? Prolonged human contact. Spread through exudates from skin lesions to abrasions of other person.
What disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae? Leprosy, also called Hansen's disease.
How do you treat Mycobacterium leprae in its tuberculoid form? Dapsone and rifampin.
How do you treat Mycobacterium leprae in its lepromatous form? Clofazimine.
How do you prevent Mycobacterium leprae, or leprosy? BCG vaccine is somewhat effective. Not a guarantee.
In its lepromatous form, Mycobacterium leprae can be identified using __ __ staining from __ __. acid fast staining from skin scrapings.
How is Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmitted? Droplet contact.
What disease is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (Also called TB or consumption). Duh.
Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is complex. For the first 2 months, you take what 4 drugs in combination? 1) Isoniazic 2) Rifampicin 3) Pyranzinamide 4) Ethambutol
How do you treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis during the last 4 months? Give 1) Isoniazid 2) Rifampicin
How do you prevent infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis? 1) BCG vaccine 2) Isoniazid
How do you see Mycobacterium tuberculosis under the microscope? Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Remember, Mycobacterium are acid fast and do not gram stain.
How do you diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lab? 1) Stain with Ziehl-Neelsen stain 2) Hybridization probes for DNA succeeded by PCR 3) Culture on Lowenstein-Jensen agar.
What important species of bacteria fall under the genus "Mycoplasma?" Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Mycoplasma lack a __ __ and are therefore unaffected by antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. cell wall
How does Mycoplasma pneumoniae look under a microscope? Mycoplasma pneumoniae look plastic, pleomorphic.
Are Mycoplasma pneumoniae encapsulated or unencapsulated? Mycoplasma pneumoniae is encapsulated.
How do you categorize the respiration of Mycoplasma? Mycoplasma are mostly facultative anaerobes. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is strictly aerobic, however.
Is Mycoplasma pneumoniae extracellular or intracellular? Mycoplasma pneumoniae is extracellular.
Mycoplasma is a frequent lab __ or cultures. contaminant
How do you categorize the respiration of Mycoplasma pneumoniae? Mycoplasma pneumoniae is strictly aerobic.
How is Mycoplasma pneumoniae transmitted? 1) Human flora 2) Droplet contact.
What disease is caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae? Mycoplasma pneumonia. Easy.
How do you treat Mycoplasma pneumoniae? 1) Doxycycline 2) Erythromycin.
How do you diagnose Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the lab? 1) Serological tests like complement fixation 2) DNA probes on sputum.
What important pathogens fall under the genus "Neisseria?" 1) Neisseria gonorrhoeae 2) Neisseria meningitidis
Is Neisseria gram neg or gram pos? Neisseria is gram neg.
What does a Neisseria microbe look like under the microscope? Neisseria is a kidney bean shaped diploccoci.
Is Neisseria encapsulated or unencapsulated? It can be either.
Is Neisseria motile or non-motile? Neisseria is non-motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Neisseria? Neisseria is aerobic.
What growth media is used for Neisseria? Thayer-Martin agar.
Gonococcus is __ __ while Neisseria meningitidis is __. facultative intracellular and N. meningitidis extracellular.
How is Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmitted? 1) Sexually 2) Vertical in birth.
What diseases are caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae? 1) Gonorrhea 2) Ophthalmia neonatorum 3) Septic arthritis
How do you treat uncomplicated gonorrhea? 1) Ceftriaxone 2) Tetracycline 3) Spectinmoycin
How do you treat someone with ophthalmia neonatorum? Tetracycline OR Erythromycin into the eyes.
How do you prevent Neisseria gonorrhoeae? 1) Safe sex 2) Tetracycline OR Erythromycin into eyes of newborns at risk.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae can be seen in the __ from urethral exudates. neutrophils
How would you diagnost Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the lab? 1) Find gram-neg diplococci in neutrophils from urethral exudates 2) Oxidase test on Thayer-Martin agar 3) Fermentation of glucose BUT NOT maltose.
Neisseria meningitidis is spread how? Respiratory droplets.
What diseases are caused by Neisseria meningitidis? 1) Meningococcal disease 2) Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
How is Neisseria meningitidis treated? 1) Penicillin G 2) Cefotaxime 3) Ceftriaxone
How do you prevent Neisseria meningitidis? 1) Rifampin 2) Vaccine - NmVac4-A/C/Y/W-135
How do you diagnose Neisseria meningitidis in the lab? 1) Microscropy showing gram-neg diplococci, often with PMNs 2) Culture on CHOC agar 3) Give pos osidase test and fermentation of glucose and maltose in 5% CO2 in air.
What important pathogenic species falls under the genus of "Pseudomonas?" Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Is Pseudomonas aeruginosa gram neg or gram pos? Pseudomonas aeruginosa gram neg.
How does Pseudomonas aeruginosa look under the microscope? Rods.
Is Pseudomonas aeruginosa encapsulated or unencapsulated? Pseudomonas aeruginosa is encapsulated.
Is Pseudomonas aeruginosa motile or non-motile? Pseudomonas aeruginosa is motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa? Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an obligate aerobe.
What sort of growth medium would you use to culture Pseudomonas aeruginosa? MacConkey agar.
Is Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular or intracellular? Pseudomonas aeruginosa is extracellular.
How is Pseudomonas aeruginosa transmitted? 1) Infects damaged tissues 2) Infects people with reduced immunity.
What sort of disease can be caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa? Pseudomonas infection. Duh.
How do you treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa? Aminoglycoside and anti-pseudomonal B-lactam.
How do you treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa? 1) Topical silver sulfadiazine for burn wounds. NO VACCINE.
How do you diagnose Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lab? 1) Colorless colonies on MacConkey agar 2) Production of pyocyanine and fluorescein 3) Pos oxidase test, no lactose fermentation.
What important species of pathogen falls under the genus "Rickettsia?" Rickettsia rickettsii.
Rickettsia rickettsii is gram-neg or gram-pos? Rickettsia rickettsii is gram-neg, but stains poorly.
What is the shape of Rickettsia rickettsii? Coccobacillary; small, rod-like.
Is Rickettsia rickettsii encapsulated or unencapsulated? Neither. Slime/microcapsule.
Is Rickettsia rickettsii motile or non-motile? Rickettsia rickettsii is non-motile.
How do you classify the respiration of Rickettsia rickettsii? Rickettsia rickettsii is aerobic.
What sort of growth medium would be used with Rickettsia rickettsii? Brain heart infusion broth and Eagle's minimal essential medium. Rarely cultured.
Is Rickettsia rickettsii intracellular or extracellular? Obligate intracellular.
How is Rickettsia rickettsii spread? Bite of infected wood or dog tick.
What disease can you catch from an infection of Rickettsia rickettsii? Rocky mountain spotted fever.
How do you treat Rickettsia rickettsii? 1) Doxycycline 2) Chloramphenicol
How do you prevent infection by Rickettsia rickettsii? 1) Vector control 2) Remove attached ticks promptly
How do you diagnose Rickettsia rickettsii in the lab? 1) Serology 2) Immunofluorescence against Rickettsia antigens.
What important species of pathogens fall under the genus "Salmonella?" 1) Salmonella typhi 2) Salmonella typhimurium
Is Salmonella gram-neg or gram-pos? Salmonella is gram-neg.
What is the shape of Salmonella? Bacilli.
Is Salmonella encapsulated or unencapsulated? Salmonella is encapsulated.
Is Salmonella motile or non-motile? Salmonella is normally motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Salmonella? Salmonella is a facultative anaerobe.
What growth medium should be used with Salmonella? MacConkey agar.
Is Salmonella intracellular or extracellular pathogen? Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen.
How is Salmonella typhi spread? Human to human, fecal-oral through food or water.
What disease is caused by Salmonella typhi? Typhoid fever type salmonellosis. Causes dysentery and colitis.
How do you treat Salmonella typhi? 1) Ceftriaxone 2) Fluoroquinolones, like ciprofloxacin.
How do you prevent Salmonella typhi? 1) Ty21a and ViCPS vaccines 2) Hygiene and food prep.
Salmonella typhi can be isolated from ? 1) blood 2) feces 3) bone marrow 4) urine 5) rose spots on skin
How do you diagnose Salmonella typhi in the lab? 1) Colorless, non-lactose fermenting colonies on MacConkey agar 2) Serology for antibodies against O antigen.
How is Salmonella typhimurium transmitted? 1) Fecal-oral 2) Food contaminated by fowl, eggs, pets, other animals.
What diseases are caused by Salmonella typhimurium? Salmonellosis with gastroenteritis and enterocolitis.
How do you treat Salmonella typhimurium? 1) Fluid and electrolyte replacement for severe diarrhea 2) Antibiotics in immunocompromised patients.
How do you prevent Salmonella typhimurium? 1) Proper sewage disposal 2) Food prep 3) Good personal hygiene.
How do you diagnost Salmonella typhimurium in the lab? Colorless colonies on MacConkey agar.
Created by: IsaacJ