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Clinicals - Micro 2

For clinicals in Microbiology dept: Genus E through L

QuestionAnswer
What important pathogenic species fall under the genus "Enterococcus?" There are 2. 1) Enterococcus faecalis 2) Enterococcus faecium
Species under the genus Enterococcus are gram pos or gram neg? Enterococcus is gram positive.
What shape are bacteria under the genus Enterococcus? Enterococcus is a cocci, so the shape is round to ovoid.
How would you describe the motility of Enterococcus? Enterococcus is non-motile.
What class of respiration is used by Enterococcus species of bacteria? Enterococcus is a facultative anaerobe.
What is the preferred growth medium for Enterococcus bacteria? 6.5% NaCl bile-esculin agar.
Are species under the genus Enterococcus intracellular or extracellular? Enterococcus is extracellular.
How are species like Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium transmitted? Enterococcus is an opportunistic part of human flora that enter through GI tract or urinary system. Surgery and wounds to those areas can cause this.
What diseases are caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium? Nosocomial infections.
How do you treat Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium? 3 combinations of answers. 1) Penicillin and an aminoglycoside. 2) Vancomycin. 3) Quinuspirin and dalfopristin.
Is there a vaccine for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium? No.
How do you prevent infection by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium? Wash hands and take other nosocomial preventive measures.
How do you diagnost Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in the lab? 1) Culture in 6.5% NaCl media 2) They can hydrolyze esculin in presence of bile.
What important species of bacteria fall under the genus "Escherichia?" Escherichia coli, or E. coli.
Is Escherichia coli gram pos or gram neg? E. Coli is gram neg.
What is the shape of Escherichia coli? Bacilli; Escherichia coli is a short rod.
Is Escherichia coli encapsulated or unencapsulated? Escherichia coli can be either encapsulated or unencapsulated!
Is Escherichia coli motile? Normally; Escherichia coli is normally motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Escherichia coli? E. coli is a facultative anaerobe.
What type of growth media should you use with Escherichia coli? MacConkey agar.
Is Escherichia coli is extracellular or intracellular? Escherichia coli can be either extracellular or intracellular.
How is Escherichia coli transmitted? Escherichia coli can spread extraintestinally or proliferate in the GI tract of its host.
What diseases are caused by Escherichia coli? 3 answers. 1) UTI 2) Diarrhea 3) Meningitis in infants.
How do you treat UTI when caused by Escherichia coli? 1) Co-trimoxazole 2) Fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin)
How do you treat meningitis when caused by Escherichia coli? 1) Combination of cephalosporin (cefotaximine) AND gentamycin.
How do you treat diarrhea when caused by Escherichia coli? 1) Antibiotics like cephalosporin and gentamycin, in combination, will shorten duration of infection 2) Electrolyte and fluid replacement.
What vaccines are available to prevent infection by Escherichia coli? None. It's normal flora.
How can you prevent infection by Escherichia coli? 1. Carefully prepare food and water; cook ground beef and pasteurized milk against O157:H7 2) Wash hands and disinfect.
Upon what media do you culture Escherichia coli in the lab? MacConkey agar.
How do you diagnose Escherichia coli in the lab? Culture on MAC, study carbohydrate fermentation patterns. 1) Most E. coli ferment lactose 2) Most E. coli produce gas in glucose fermentation 3) Ferment Mannitol.
What strain of Escherichia coli can be found in cattle and can infect humans? Escherichia coli O157:H7.
What diseases are caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7? 1) Hemorrhagic colitis 2) Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
How is enteropathogenic Escherichia coli transmitted? Vertical, in utero, or at birth.
What important pathogenic species of bacteria falls under the genus "Franchisella?" Franchisella tularensis.
Is Franchisella tularensis gram neg or gram pos? Franchisella tularensis is gram neg.
How would you describe the shape of Franchisella tularensis? Franchisella tularensis is a coccobacillus; it is small and pleomorphic.
Is Franchisella tularensis encapsulated or unencapsulated? Franchisella tularensis is encapsulated.
Is Franchisella tularensis motile or non-motile? Franchisella tularensis is non-motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Franchisella tularensis? Franchisella tularensis is strictly aerobic.
Is Franchisella tularensis intracellular or extracellular? Franchisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen.
What is the preferred growth medium for Franchisella tularensis? Chocolate agar and Thayer-Martin media with appropriate additives. MacConkey agar is not reliable.
How is Franchisella tularensis transmitted? 1) Vector-borne by arthropods 2) Infected animals, including domestic animals.
What disease is caused by Franchisella tularensis? Franchisella tularensis causes Tularemia.
How do you treat Franchisella tularensis? 1) Streptomycin 2) Gentamycin.
You can prevent Tularemia (as caused by Franchisella tularensis) by avoiding __ vectors. insect
You can prevent Tularemia caused by Franchisella tularensis by taking precautions when handling ? animals or animal products.
How is Franchisella tularensis diagnosed in the lab? Serologically, but this is rarely done.
What important species of pathogen falls under the genus "Haemophilus?" Haemophilus influenzae
Is Haemophilus influenzae a gram neg or gram pos? Haemophilus influenzae is gram neg.
What is the shape of Haemophilus influenzae? Haemophilus influenzae is a coccobacillus; it ranges from small to long, slender filaments.
Is Haemophilus influenzae encapsulated or unencapsulated? Haemophilus influenzae can be either encapsulated or unencapsulated.
How would you describe the motility of Haemophilus influenzae? Haemophilus influenzae is non-motile.
How is Haemophilus influenzae transmitted? 1) Droplet contact 2) Spreads from upper respiratory tract; it is normal flora.
What diseases are caused Haemophilus influenzae? There are 3. 1) Bacterial meningitis 2) URT infections 3) Pneumonia/bronchitis.
How do you treat meningitis infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae? 1) 3rd generation cepholosporin, like cefotaxime or ceftriaxone 2) Combo of ampicillin and sulbactam.
How do you prevent infection by Haemophilus influenzae? 1) Hib vaccine for infants 2) Rifampin.
How do you culture Haemophilus influenzae? Chocolate agar with hemin factor X and NAD+ (factor V).
How do you diagnose Haemophilus influenzae in the lab? 1) Culture on CHOC agar then 2) check for Quellung reaction 3) immunoflorescence staining of capsule 4) detection of capsular antigen CSF or other body fluids.
What is a Quellung reaction? When antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule and allows it species to be visualized under a microscope. If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge.
What species does the Quellung reaction detect? There are 6. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella
What important species of pathogenic bacterial falls under the genus "Helicobacter?" Helicobacter pylori
Are Helicobacter pylori gram pos or gram neg? Helicobacter pylori is gram neg.
What is the shape of Helicobacter pylori? Helicobacter pylori is helix shaped. It is a curved rod, but not a spirochete.
How would you describe the movement or motility of Helicobacter pylori? Helicobacter pylori has a rapid, corkscrew motility.
How would you classify the respiration of Helicobacter pylori? Helicobacter pylori is microaerophilic.
What growth medium would you use with Helicobacter pylori? Use a medium with antibiotics against other fecal flora.
Is Helicobacter pylori intracellular or extracellular? Helicobacter pylori is extracellular.
How is Helicobacter pylori transmitted? 1) Colonizing the stomach 2) Person to person, but how is unclear.
What diseases are caused by Helicobacter pylori? 1) Peptic ulcer 2) Gastric carcinoma 3) Gastric B-cell lymphoma
How do you treat Helicobacter pylori? Combination of tetracycline, metonidazole and bismuth salt.
What kind of vaccine can you take against Helicobacter pylori? None.
How do you diagnose Helicobacter pylori in the lab? There are 3 answers. 1) Look for corkscrew movement under microscope 2) Urease positivity by radioactively labeled urea 3) Serology by ELISA.
What important pathogenic species of microbe falls under the genus "Legionella?" Legionella pneumophila.
Is Legionella pneumophila gram neg or gram pos? Legionella pneumophila is gram neg, but stains poorly.
What is the shape of Legionella pneumophila? Legionella pneumophila is cocobacillary in the lab with a monotrichious flagella.
Is Legionella pneumophila encapsulated or unencapsulated? Legionella pneumophila is unencapsulated.
Is Legionella pneumophila motile or non-motile? Legionella pneumophila is motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Legionella pneumophila? Legionella pneumophila is aerobic.
What growth media would you use for Legionella pneumophila? BCYE (Buffered charcoal yeast extract) enriched with L-cysteine, iron, and a-ketoglutarate.
Is Legionella pneumophila intracellular or extracellular? Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular pathogen.
How is Legionella pneumophila transmitted? Droplet contact. Can come from humidifiers, AC (nonvehicular) and water distribution systems.
What diseases can be caused by Legionella pneumophila? 1) Legionnaire's disease 2) Pontiac fever
How do you treat Legionella pneumophila? 1) Macrolides like erythromycin or azithromycin 2) Fluoroquinolones
What vaccines are available for Legionella pneumophila? None.
How can you prevent infection by Legionella pneumophila? Legionella pneumophila infection can be prevented by heating water before use.
Legionella pneumophila can be cultured from what secretions? Legionella pneumophila can be cultured from respiratory secretions onto BCYE agar.
How do you diagnose Legionella pneumophila in the lab? Serology, including direct immunoflorescence and radioimmunoassay for antigen in urine. Can also detect by hybridization to ribosomal RNA using DNA probe.
What important species of pathogenic bacteria falls under the genus of "Leptospira?" Leptospira interrogans.
Is Leptospira interrogans gram neg or gram pos? Leptospira is gram neg, but stains poorly.
What shape will you see Leptospira interrogans under the microscope? Leptospira is a spirochete; spiral or corkscrew shaped rods. The name Leptospira literally means thin coil.
How would you describe the motility of Leptospira? Leptospira is highly motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Leptospira? Leptospira is strictly aerobic.
What medium is used to grow Leptospira? Blood agar.
Is Leptospira intracellular or extracellular? Leptospira interrogans is an extracellular pathogen.
How is Leptospira interrogans transmitted? Contaminated food/water by urine or infected animals. It can survive for weeks in stagnant water.
What disease can be caused by Leptospira interrogans? Leptospirosis.
How do you treat Leptospirosis as caused by Leptospira interrogans? 1) Penicillin G 2) Tetracycline like doxycycline
How do you prevent Leptospira interrogans infections? No vaccine. Doxycycline. Rodent control.
How do you diagnose Leptospira interrogans in the lab? 1) Dark field microscopy 2) Serology agglutination tests.
What species of pathogenic bacteria falls under the genus "Listeria?" Listeria monocytogenes.
Is Listeria monocytogenes gram neg or gram pos? Listeria monocytogenes is DARKLY gram pos.
Listeria monocytogenes has what shape? Listeria monocytogenes is a short, slender rod.
How would you describe the motility of Listeria monocytogenes? Listeria monocytogenes tumbles in liquid medium.
How would classify the respiration of Listeria monocytogenes? Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative anaerobe.
What medium would you use to grow Listeria monocytogenes? Enriched media. Mueller-Hinton agar.
Is Listeria monocytogenes intracellular or extracellular. Listeria monocytogenes is an extracellular pathogen.
How is Listeria monocytogenes transmitted? 1) Dairy 2) Ground meats 3) Poultry 4) Vertical to newborn or fetus.
What disease can you get from Listeria monocytogenes? Listeriosis.
How do you treat Listeria monocytogenes? 1) Ampicillin 2) Co-trimoxazole
How do you prevent Listeria monocytogenes? Proper hand washing and food prep. No vaccine.
Listeria monocytogenes can be isolated from __ and __. blood and CSF.
How do you diagnose Listeria monocytogenes in the lab? 1) B-hemolysis and catalase production on blood agar 2) Morphology and motility under microscope.
Created by: IsaacJ