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Bio L3 Plant Animal

NCEA Level 3 Biology Plant Animal Responses AS 91603

abiotic factors The non-living (physical or climatic) aspects of an environment.
abscissic acid A plant hormone with a range of effects e.g. promotes leaf and fruit abscission in some species.
abscission Leaf or fruit fall.
actogram An activity / time graph for an organism.
adaptation A feature of an organism which helps it to live successfully in its environment.
adaptive advantage The way in which the response helps to ensure the survival of the individual and therefore the population or species as a whole.
aggression Attempts by an animal to harm or kill another animal of the same species with which it is competing (not predation).
agonistic behaviour Ritualised behaviour between two members of the same species which are in conflict. Includes threat displays and submissive/dominance behaviours. Reduces actual physical fighting.
allelopathy An interspecific relationship in which a plant species produces a chemical which is toxic to other species.
altruism Behaviour in which an individual puts itself at risk for the benefit of the group e.g. warning of predators.
amensalism An interspecific relationship in which one species is harmed and the other species is unaffected (or benefits) e.g. antibiosis and allelopathy.
antibiosis An interspecific relationship in which one species releases a substance which inhibits the growth or kills another species (e.g. some fungi inhibit the growth of bacteria).
apical dominance Growth pattern where there is one main trunk/stem and much smaller side branches, due to suppression of lateral (side) buds by a high concentration of auxin near the top of the plant.
auxin A plant hormone. Involved in tropic responses because it affects cell elongation, also has various other roles and effects in plants.
Batesian mimicry When a palatable animal mimics (looks like) an unpalatable one, providing protection from predators.
behaviour The response of an organism to a stimulus. Can be innate or learned.
biological clock An internal timing system in organisms.
biotic factors Environmental factors which are the result of living things.
camouflage Concealment method in which an animal is coloured to match its environment.
chemo- Prefix for chemicals.
chemotaxis The movement of an animal towards or away from a chemical stimulus.
chemotropims Plant growth response towards or away from a chemical stimulus.
circa- Means ‘about / approximately’. ONLY used to describe rhythms occurring in constant environmental (free-running) conditions.
circaannual A rhythm of about one year occurring in constant environmental (free-running) conditions.
circadian A rhythm of about 24 hours occurring in constant environmental (free-running) conditions.
circalunar A rhythm of about one month occurring in constant environmental (free-running) conditions.
circatidal A rhythm of about 12.5 hours occurring in constant environmental (free-running) conditions.
co-evolution When two species with a strong ecological relationship influence each other’s evolution (the relationship acts as a strong selection pressure).
commensalism An interspecific relationship where one organism benefits, but the other is unaffected.
competition Occurs when organisms living in the same location require the same resource, for which demand exceeds supply. Can be interspecific or intraspecific.
cooperative breeding Cooperation between individuals for successful reproduction, which may include courtship, mating and parental care of offspring.
cooperative interactions When members of a species co-ordinate activities (e.g. food gathering, surveillance of predators) for their mutual benefit.
courtship A series of signals exchanged between male and female and ending in mating.
crepuscular Most active at dawn and dusk.
critical day length The photoperiod above which long-day plants flower, and below which short day plants will flower. NB: remember: later research discovered it’s actually the length of DARKNESS which is critical to the plant.
cytokinin A plant hormone. Various effects, including promoting cell division (and therefore growth).
daily rhythm Activity occurring every 24 hours (NB: zeitgeber(s) present!).
day-neutral plant A plant that flowers independently of the day length.
diapause A period of arrested development (especially in insects in cold climates).
diurnal Most active during the day.
dormancy A state of temporarily reduced metabolism.
ectoparasite A parasite which lives or feeds on the outside of its host.
ecological niche The role of the organism in its ecosystem. Includes its feeding role, activity pattern, habitat and adaptations. Each species has a unique niche.
effector Part of an organism where the response to the stimulus is carried out.
endogenous rhythm Controlled by an internal timing mechanism (biological clock). It continues in the absence of environmental cues.
endoparasite A parasite which lives on the inside of its host.
entrainment Process by which the internal clock is reset so that it is synchronised with an environmental rhythm.
ethene / ethylene gas A plant hormone which is produced and accumulates in aging fruit, promoting their ripening.
exogenous rhythm Controlled by an external cue or stimulus.
exploitation Interspecific relationship in which one species benefits while the other is harmed. Includes parasitism, herbivory and predation.
fitness This means evolutionary fitness and is a measure of an organism’s reproductive success. ‘Fitter’ organisms are more likely to survive, reproduce and pass on their favourable alleles.
free running period The length of an organism's activity period in the absence of external cues (zeitgebers).
free-running Occurring in the absence of environmental cues.
Gause’s competitive exclusion principle If two species have the same niche they cannot remain for long in the same habitat. One will be out-competed and eliminated (or at least reduced to a very small population.)
germination The process by which a plant grows from a seed.
gibberellin A plant hormone which promotes elongation of shoots.
gravi- (or geo-) Prefix for gravity.
gravitropism A plant growth response towards or away from the stimulus of gravity.
habitat The specific environment in which an organism lives.
herbivory A type of exploitation in which an animal eats plants (or their parts), benefiting the herbivore and (potentially) harming the plant.
hibernation A period of suspended activity / very low metabolic activity during winter, generally to survive a lack of food.
hierarchy When animals have a specific rank in the group. A linear hierarchy (or pecking order) has individuals ranked from highest (alpha individual) to lowest (omega individual).
homing The ability of an animal to return to its home site over unfamiliar territory. It occurs on a regular (e.g. daily) basis.
hormone Chemical messengers which control development and growth. Produced in one part of an organism and transported to another part where it takes effect.
hydro- Prefix for water.
hydrotropism A plant growth response towards or away from the stimulus of water.
innate behaviour A fixed response to a stimulus, controlled by genes.
interspecific Between two different species.
intraspecific Within one species.
jet-lag Condition caused when the endogenous circadian rhythm does not match external cues. Usually caused by travelling across time zones.
kin selection When an individual puts them self at risk to assist the survival of another individual to which they are related. This helps to ensure their alleles are passed on.
kinesis Non-directional movement response in animals in which the rate of activity is determined by the intensity of the stimulus.
klinokinesis Non-directional movement response in animals in which the rate of turning is determined by the intensity of the stimulus... faster in unfavourable conditions and slower in favourable conditions.
learned behaviour Behaviour which is modified by experience.
limiting factor Any variable factor of the environment that limits the activity of an organism or population.
long-day plant A plant that flowers when the day length exceeds the critical day length (i.e. requires a short night).
magnetic compass Ability of animals to use Earth’s magnetic field lines for orientation and navigation.
meristem Area at tips of shoots and roots where cells are dividing rapidly.
migration The mass movement, typically annually, of animals over a long distance between two habitats. One habitat is normally a breeding or feeding area.
mimicry The similarity in appearance of one species of animal to another unrelated species that provides a benefit (e.g. protection from predators).
monogamy Each male mates with only one female (and vice versa).
mortality The number or proportion of deaths in a population over time.
Mullerian mimicry Where several unpalatable (inedible) species resemble each other, providing protection from predators.
mutualism An interspecific relationship where both species benefit.
navigation Determining the position relative to other locations.
nastic responses A plant turgor response that is independent of the direction of the stimulus. Not a growth response. Rapid and reversible e.g. sensitive plant (Mimosa).
niche differentiation The process by which differences evolve in the niches of competing species, resource use in time, space. This specialisation reduces interspecific competition.
nocturnal Most active at night.
orientation The ability of organisms to determine their location in relation to environmental stimuli.
orthokinesis Non-directional movement response in animals in which the speed of movement is determined by the intensity of the stimulus... faster in unfavourable conditions and slower in favourable conditions.
pair bond A long-lasting relationship between a particular male and female.
parasitism A form of exploitation in which one species (the parasite) feeds off another living species (the host).
parasitoid An organism which is parasitic at only one stage of its life cycle.
parental care Investment of resources by parents in the survival of offspring.
period The length of the activity cycle (how long it takes to repeat) of an organism.
personal distance The close-up distance around an animal that is never invaded except for mating or fighting.
phase shift A change in the starting time of a rhythm (but not its period).
pheromone Chemical used as a signal to other members of the same species.
photo- Prefix for light.
photoperiod The day length; this is the most reliable indicator of time of the year.
photoperiodism The control of seasonal activity by day length.
phototaxis Movement of an organisms towards or away from a light stimulus.
phototropism Plant growth response toward or away from a light stimulus.
phytochrome A plant pigment that controls the photoperiodic response (measures the length of darkness / light).
plumule The first shoot of a young plant.
polygamy A social system in which individuals mate with more than one member of the opposite sex during a breeding season.
predation A form of exploitation in which one species (the predator) kills and eats another species (the prey).
r/K strategies r-strategist: large number of offspring but little parental care; K-strategist: small number of offspring, but large investment in parental care of each.
receptors Part of an organism which is able to detect a change in the environment (stimulus).
short-day plant A plant that flowers when the day length is less than the critical day length (i.e. requires a long night).
solar navigation Using the position of the sun to navigate. NB: requires an internal clock to compensate for changing position of sun in sky.
star compass Ability of an animal to orientate and navigate using the pattern of stars.
stellar navigation Using the stars to navigate.
stimulus A change in the environment which causes a response in an organism.
stratification Two different biological meanings: where seeds are treated to simulate winter conditions so that germination may occur, OR a vertical pattern in the distribution of species - e.g. the layers of plants in a forest.
submissive behaviour When an individual indicates, by an act or posture, that it will not challenge a dominant individual in a social group. This behaviour is important in maintaining a dominance hierarchy.
subordinate Lower in rank e.g. in a linear hierarchy
succession A pattern in the distribution of species over time (e.g. in plants from bare rock to forest).
sun compass Ability of an animal to orientate and navigate using the sun’s position. NB: requires an internal clock to compensate for changing position of sun in sky.
taxis The movement of an organism towards or away from a directional stimulus.
territoriality When individuals or groups of a species have territories which they defend.
territory An area used by an animal for feeding or breeding, that the animal will defend against individuals of its own species. Territories do not overlap.
thigmo- Prefix for touch (physical contact).
thigmonasty A plant turgor response to the stimulus of touch (e.g. leaves close).
thigmotropism A plant growth response towards or away from the stimulus of touch (contact).
tropism A plant growth response to towards or away from a directional stimulus.
vernalisation Promotion of flowering by chilling (e.g. some bulbs such as tulips require this).
zeitgeber The external environmental cue used to ‘set’ the biological clock. In most species, this is the change from light to dark (or dark to light).
zonation A horizontal pattern in the distribution of species e.g. zones of plants of different types up a mountain or bands of particular species on the rocky shore.
suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) A tiny region within the hypothalamus of the brain, connected by nerves to the eyes. Responsible for controlling the circadian rhythm in animals.
Created by: nztcowen
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