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Clinicals - Micro 1

For clinicals in Microbiology dept: Genus B through C

Under the genus "Bordetella," what important species should you know? Bordetella pertusis
Microbes in the genus Bordetella are gram negative or positive? Bordetella are gram negative and stain red or pink.
Microbes in the genus Bordetella have what shape? Bordetella are small coccobacilli (very short rods which may be mistaken for cocci)
Are Bordetella microbes encapsulated or unencapsulated? Bordetella are encapsulated
How would you describe the motility of Bordetella species? Bordetella are non-motile
What class of respiration is exhibited by Bordetella microbes? Bordetella are aerobic, so they breathe oxygen.
What kind of growth medium should be used when identifying Bordetella microbes? Bordetella grow on Regan-Lowe agar
Are Bordetella microbes considered intracellular (they invade the host cells) or extracellular (they proliferate in the environment around the host cells)? Bordetella are extracellular
Under the genus "Borrelia," what important species should you know? Borrelia burgdorferi
Microbes in the genus Borrelia are gram negative or gram positive? Borrelia are gram negative, but stain poorly. So they will stain red or pink.
Borrelia microbes have what shape? Borrelia are spirochetes (spiral or corkscrew shaped)
Borrelia microbes are encapsulated or unencapsulated? Borrelia are unencapsulated
How would you describe the motility of Borrelia microbes? Borrelia are highly motile
What class of respiration is exhibited by Borrelia microbes? Borrelia are anaerobic, so they breath CO2.
Microbes in the genus Borrelia are __ to culture. difficult
Borrelia microbes are intracellular or extracellular? Borrelia are intracellular
When gram stained, Bordetella pertusis is what color? Bordetella stain red or pink because they are gram negative.
Bordetella pertusis look like what under a microscope? Bordetella look like short rods. They are coccobacili.
Are Bordetella pertusis microbes motile? Bordetella are non-motile.
Do Bordetella pertusis microbes live inside or outside of the host's cells? Bordetella are extracellular, so they live outside the host cells.
How is Bordetella pertusis transmitted? Bordetella is transmitted through respiratory droplets expelled by human hosts.
What diseases are caused by Bordetella pertusis? Bordetella causes whooping cough. Bacterial pneumonia is a common secondary infection. (BONUS: In dogs, whooping cough is caused by B. bronchiseptica)
How do you treat Bordetella pertusis? There are 3. 1) Azithromycin 2) Erythromycin 3) Clarithromycin
How do you prevent Bordetella pertusis aside from avoiding respiratory droplets? 2 answers. 1) Pertusis vaccine 2) DPT vaccine
How do you diagnose Bordetella pertusis in the lab? 1) Direct immunoflorescence 2) PCR amplification
What are the important species under the genus "Brucella?" There are 4. 1) Brucella abortus 2) Brucella canis 3) Brucella melitensis 4) Brucells suis
Brucella microbes are gram negative or gram positive? Brucella are gram negative. They stain red or pink.
Brucella microbes have what shape? Brucella are small coccobacilli, so they look like short rods.
Brucella microbes are encapsulated or unencapsulated? Brucella are unencapsulated.
Brucella microbes have what kind of motility? Brucella are non motile.
What class of respiration is exhibited by Brucella microbes? Brucella are aerobic, so they breathe oxygen.
What kind of growth medium should be used with Brucella microbes? Brucella microbes grow on Ruiz Castaneda medium.
Brucella microbes are intracellular or extracellular? Brucella are intracellular microbes.
T or F: Borrelia burgdorferi microbes stain red. True. Borrelia are gram negative and therefore stain red. (They stain poorly, however.)
Borrelia burgdorferi are __ motile. highly
What do Borrelia burgdorgeri require to breath? CO2
How easy is it to culture Borrelia burgdorferi? Borrelia are hard to culture.
How are Borrelia burgdorferi microbes transmitted? Borrelia is transmitted by ticks which get it from deer and rodents they've bitten.
What disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi? Lyme disease.
How do you treat Borrelia burgorferi (or Lyme disease) in the early, prearthritic stages? There are 3. 1) Cephalosporins 2) amoxicillin 3) doxycycline
Once arthritis manifests in people with Lyme disease (caused by Borrelia burgdorferi) you would treat them with a __ course of antibiotics. longer
How do you diagnose Borrelia burgdorferi in the lab? 3 answers. 1) Microscope with Giemsa or Wright stain 2) PCR 3) Serology, but has a low precision.
How are Brucella microbes transmitted? 1) Direct contact with infected animal 2) Orally, ingestion of unpasteurized milk products.
What disease is caused by Brucella? Brucellosis (duh).
How do you treat Brucellosis (as caused by Brucella)? (Hint: Combination of 2, but 3 possible) Combination of 1) Doxycycline 2) Streptomycin OR Gentamycin
How do you diagnose Brucella microbes in the lab? 1) culture, which is difficult 2) agglutination serology.
What important species of bacteria fall under the genus "Campylobacter?" Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter microbes are gram negative or gram positive? Campylobacter are gram negative, so they stain red or pink.
How would you describe the appearance of Campylobacter microbes? Campylobacter are spirilla shaped - helical/spiral bacilli with a single polar flagellum.
How would you describe the motility of Campylobacter? Campylobacter are motile with a darting motion.
How would you classify the respiration of Campylobacter? Campylobacter are microaerophilic, meaning they require lower levels of O2 than is found in the atmosphere. Campylobacter also needs low levels of CO2 (hence, they are capnophilic as well).
What sort of growth medium should be used with Campylobacter? Campylobacter grow on blood agar inhibiting other fecal flora - Skirrow's medium or, even better, Preston's agar. Grow at 42°C, the normal avian body temperature, rather than at 37°C, which is normally preferred for bacterial growth. CSM/CAMP
Campylobacter is intracellular or extracellular? Campylobacter are extracellular bacteria.
Campylobacter jejuni can be tranferred via the __ route from other mammals and fowl. fecal/oral
Campylobacter jejuni can be transferred from contaminated __, especially __. meat, especially poultry
Besides the fecal/oral route, Campylobacter can also be transferred by ? drinking contaminated water or dairy products.
What disease can be caused by Campylobacter jejuni? Acute enteritis (abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and malaise). Bloody stools in severe cases.
Is there a vaccine available for Campylobacter jejuni? No
How do you diagnose Campylobacter jejuni in the lab? Find it in patient feces.
The genus Chlamydia/Chlamydophila have what 3 important species of microbe? 1) Chlamydia pneumoniae 2) Chlamydia trachomatis 3) Chlamydophila psittaci
Chlamydia microbes are gram negative or positive? Chlamydia are considered gram negative, but are hard to gram stain.
What shape are Chlamydia microbes? Round (cocci) or rod (bacillus) shaped.
Are Chlamydia microbes encapsulated or unencapsulated? Chlamydia are unencapsulated.
Are Chlamydia microbes motile or nonmotile? Motile.
How do we classify the respiration of Chlamydia microbes? Chlamydia are facultative aerobes or strictly aerobic.
Are Chlamydia microbes intracellular or extracellular bacteria? Chlamydia are obligate intracellular organisms.
What kind of growth media should be used to grow Chlamydia in the lab? None. Chlamydia is detected by other means.
How is Chlamydia pneumoniae diagnosed in the lab? No methods for routine use.
How is Chlamydia pneumoniae transmitted? Respiratory droplets.
What diseases are caused by Chlamydia pneumonia? Community-acquired respiratory infection.
How is Chlamydia pneumoniae treated? There are 2. 1) Doxycycline 2) Erythromycin
How is Chlamydia trachomatis transmitted? 4 answers. 1) Sexually 2) Flies (trachoma) 3) Direct or contaminated surfaces 4) Passage through birth canal.
What disease can be caused by Chlamydia trachomatis? 4 answers. 1) Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) 2) Lympnogranuloma venereum (LGV) 3) Trachoma (eyes) 4) Inclusion conjuctivitis of newborn (ICN)
How is Chlamydia trachomatis treated? 3 answers. 1) Azithromycin 2) Erythromycin 3) Tetracyclines like Doxycycline.
How can you prevent Chlamydia trachomatis? 2 answers. 1) Safe sex 2) Erythromyci of silver nitrate in newborn's eyes.
How many vaccines are available for Chlamydia trachomatis? None.
How is Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosed in the lab? 3 answers. 1) Cellular cytoplasmic inclusions by immunoflorescence 2) DNA hybridization 3) ELISA for lipopolysccharides
How is Chlamydia psittaci transmitted? Inhalation of dust with secretions or feces from birds, esp. parrots.
What disease is caused by Chlamydia psittaci? Psittacosis. (Duh.)
What treatments work on Chlamydia psittaci? There are 3. 1) Tetracycline 2) Doxycycline 3) Erythromycin, though it's less efficient than the others.
How can Chlamydia psittaci be diagnosed in the lab? 3 answers. 1) Rise in antibody titer 2) Complement fixation 3) Indirect immunofloresence
Under the genus "Clostridium," what 4 species of microbe are important to know? 1) Clostridium botulinum 2) Clostridium difficile 3) Clostridium perfringens 4) Clostridium tetani
What color will a Clostridium microbe gram stain? Clostridium are gram positive, so they will stain blue or purple.
How do Clostridum microbes look under the microscope? Clostridium are large, blunt ended rods.
Are Clostridium microbes encapsulated or unencapsulated? Clostridium are normally encapsulated.
How would you describe the motility of Clostridium? Clostridium are mostly motile.
How would you classify the respiration of Clostridium organisms? Clostridium are obligate anaerobes.
What kind of growth medium works best with Clostridium microbes? Clostridium grow best on anearobic blood agar.
Are Clostridium microbes intracellular or extracellular? Clostridium are extracellular.
How are Clostridium botulinum microbes spread? Spores from soil, aquatic sediments. Contaminated vegs, meat, fish.
What disease is caused by Clostridium botulinum? Botulism.
How do you treat Botulism as caused by Clostridium botulinum? Antitoxin from horse antiserum.
How can you prevent infection by Clostridium botulinum? Proper food preservation techniques.
How can Clostridium botulinum be diagnosted in the lab? 2 answers. 1) Mouse inoculation 2) Culture in standard aerobic culture.
How is Clostridium difficile transmitted? 2 answers. 1) Spores 2) Human flora - they overgrow other flora when other flora depleted.
What disease is caused by Clostridium difficile? Pseudomembranous colitis.
How can we treat Clostridium difficile? 4 answers. 1) Stop predisposing antibiotic 2) Fluid and electrolyte replacement 3) Vancomycin if severe or 4) Metronidazole if severe.
How can we detect Clostridium difficule in the lab? 2 ways. 1) ELISA for toxin A and B 2) Endoscopy for pseudomembrane.
How is Clostridium perfringens transmitted? 2 ways. 1) Spores in soil 2) Human flora in vagina and GI tract.
What diseases are caused by Clostridium perfringens? 3 answers. 1) Gas gangrene 2) Acute food poisoning 3) Anaerobic cellulitis
How do you treat gas gangrene (caused by Clostridium perfringens)? 3 ways. 1) Debridement or amputation 2)Hyperbaric meds 3) High dose penicillin G or doxycycline
How do you treat food poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens? Supportive care is all that is needed. Disease is self limiting.
What 4 ways are there to diagnose Clostridium perfringens in the lab? 1) Microscopically 2) Blood agar culture - forms double-zone B-hemolysis 3) Sugar fermentation 4) Organic acid production
How is Clostridium tetani transmitted? Spores in soil infect wound, burns, or due to surgery.
What disease is caused by Clostridium tetani? Tetanus. (Duh)
What 5 treatments can be used to fight Clostridium tetani, or tetanus? 1) Tetanus immune globulin 2) Horse antitoxin 3) Sedatives 4) Muscle relaxants 5) Mechanical ventilation
How can you prevent tetanus which is caused by Clostridium tetani? DPT vaccine.
Diagnosis of Clostridium in the lab is __. difficult
What important species of microbe fall under the genus "Corynebacterium?" Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Are Corynebacterium microbes gram positive or gram negative? Corynebacterium are gram pos, so they are blue or purple. They stain unevenly.
How can the appearance of Corynebacterium microbes be described? Corynebacterium are small, pleomorphic rods. (They vary in size and shape depending on conditions.)
Are Corynebacterium microbes encapsulated or unencapsulated? Corynebacterium are unencapsulated.
What is really distinguishing about the appearance of Corynebacterium under the microscope? Corynebacterium look like palisades, Chinese characters or a picket fence.
Are Corynebacterium microbes motile or nonmotile? Corynebacterium are nonmotile.
How do we classify the respiratory features of Corynebacterium? Corynebacterium are mostly facultative anaerobes.
What is the best growth medium for Corynebacterium? Tinsdale agar. Aerobically?
Is Corynebacterium are intracellular or extracellular microbe? Corynebacterium are extracellular.
How is Corynebacterium diphtheriae transmitted? Corynebacterium diphtheriae are spread by respiratory droplets and are part of human flora.
What diseases are caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae? Diphtheriae. (Duh.)
What 3 treatments are available for diphtheriae, which is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae? 1) Horse serum antitoxin 2) Erythromycin 3) Penicillin
How can you prevent diphtheriae, which is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae? DPT vaccine
How can you diagnose Corynebacterium diphtheriae in the lab? Culture on Tinsdale agar, follow with immunologic precipitin reaction.
Created by: IsaacJ