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USMLE

Real Immuno 1

QuestionAnswer
Lymph drainage: What does the right lymphatic duct drain? Right arm and right half of head
Lymph drainage: What does the thoracic duct drain? Everything except for the right arm and the right half of head
Splenic sinusoids: What are they? Long, vascular channels in red pulp with fenestrated "barrel hoop" basement membrane and macrophages nearby. Adjacent to splenic cords and contain blood.
How can the spleen be distinguished from a lymph node on histologic section? Spleens have no subscapsular sinus and no cortex or medulla. They have white pulp and red pulp.
What does the white pulp of the spleen contain? 1. Lymphoid follicles with germinal centers (mostly B cells). Can see aggregation of dark basophilic lymphocytic nuclei. 2. Characteristic central arterioles. Surrounded by a Periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) which is a collection of T-lymphocytes
Where is the red pulp of the spleen located? Around and between the lymphatic nodules of the white pulp
Splenic cords: What are they? Structures containing macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and few RBCs. Separated from each other by splenic sinusoids.
Thymus: Function Site of T-cell differentiation and maturation (T cells differentiate in the Thymus. B cells differentiate in the Bone marrow)
Thymus: Embryological origin Epithelium of 3rd branchial pouches
Lymphocytes: Embryological origin Mesenchyme
Thymus: What does the cortex contain and what does it look like? The lobules resemble lymphatic nodules except they are angular, not round. Contains: 1. Densely packed (dark) immature T cells. 2. Large epithelial reticular cells which appear as holes within the cortical cells.
Thymus: What does the medulla contain and what does it look like? Pale Contains: Thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles which have a lamellated or whorled appearance due to degenerating epithelial reticular cells.
What percentage of T cells which enter thymus survive? 2%
What is positive selection of T cells? Selects for T cells able to interact w/MCH. Must bind MHC/self antigen complex w/adequate affinity. Binding MHC too weakly triggers apoptosis signal
Where do positive and negative selection of T-cells occur in the thymus? At the corticomedullary junction
What is negative selection of T cells? MCH/self antigen presented again. Selects against T-cells that react to strongly to the self-antigen. Binding self too tightly triggers apoptosis signal.
Innate immunity vs adaptive immunity: How are receptors that recognize pathogens encoded? Innate: Germline encoded Adaptive: Undergo VDJ recombination during development
Innate immunity vs adaptive immunity: How fast is response to pathogens? Innate: Always fast, no memory response. Adaptive: Slow on 1st exposure but memory response is faster and more robust.
Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Neutrophils Innate immunity
Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Macrophages Innate immunity
Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Dendritic cells Innate immunity
Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Complement Innate immunity
Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: T cells Adaptive immunity
Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: B cells Adaptive immunity
Innate immunity or adaptive immunity: Circulating antibody Adaptive immunity
Created by: Asclepius
 

 



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