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Neurology Ch 12

Cerebellum

TermDefinition
Relation of the Cerebellum and the cerebral hemispheres -Has more neurons than the cerebral hemispheres -Communicates with cerebral hemispheres through the brain stem. Enters through the medulla and pons
Functions of the cerebellum -Error Control Device –Modifies motor movements from the cortex -Makes modifications in rest of body to make a particular movement more fluid. -People with cerebellum issues have jerky movements.
Ataxic dysarthia -Jerky movements. -Think about each movement. -Coordination not there to make speech sounds(phonation starts before the plosive). -Characterized by Scanning Speech & Slurred and Disjointed Speech -usually due to ipsilateral lesion in cerebellum.
Posterior Fossa -Cavity in cranium where Cerebellum sits
Tentorium Cerebelli Extension of the meninges that cover the brain and separate the cerebrum from the cerebellum.
Parts of the Cerebellum 3 Lobes -Floccular Nodular -Anterior -Posterior
Longitudinal Cortices regions of the Cerebellum 1. Median (Vermal) 2. Paramedian (Paravermal 3. Lateral
Nucleus -Refers to a group of neurons (cell bodies) deep in a structure -found in gray matter
Dentate nucleus -Largest nucleus of the Cerebellum -Communicates through cerebellar peduncle -Carries information important for coordination of limb movements (along with the motor cortex and basal ganglia)
Emboliform and Globose nucleus -Two Nuclei of the Cerebellum -Regulate movements of ipsilateral extremities
Fastigial nucleus -Nucleus of the Cerebellum -Regulates body posture -Is related to the flocculo nodular lobe (also involved in the vestibular system)
Pontine Projections Axons going away from and towards the pons.
Superior Cerebellar Peduncle -Carries info away from dentate Nucleus towards the pons. -Pathways away from and towards the brain stem
2 types of somatotopic organization in the Cerebellum Sensory and Motor - specefic parts of cerebellum process sensory and motor info for specific areas of the body
Sensorimotor Somatotopically representation of the body in the Cerebellum -Ipsilateral in anterior lobule -Bilateral in posterior lobe -Cerebral Cortex and Cerebellum have similar sensory representations -Motor areas may have auditory and visual processing
Floccular nodular lobe aka Archicerebellum lobe -Lobe of the cerebellum -Has input from vestibular part of VIII cranial nerve -Regulates equilibrium through vestibulospinal tract -First to develop
Anterior lobe aka Paleocerebellum lobe -Lobe of the cerebellum -Rostral to Primary Fissure -General Sensory Receptors -Concerned with muscle tone and walking
Posterior lobe aka Neocerebellum -Lobe of cerebellum -Receives projections from contralateral sensorimotor cortex -Projects to contralateral motor cortex by dentate nucleus, red nucleus and thalamus -Aids in coordination of fine and skilled movements -Largest -Last to develop
Median (Vermal) region of the Cerebellum -Located in middle of 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum -Contributes to body posture (related to flocular nodular lobes)
Paramedian (Paravermal) region of the cerebellum Regulates movements of ipsilateral extremities (e.g. walking)
Lateral region of the cerebellum Regulates skilled movements of ipsilateral extremity (e.g. tying your shoe)
Three Peduncles of the cerebellum Connects the Cerebellum to the brain stem.
Inferior and Middle Peduncles -Cerebellum Penducle -Carries afferent info towards the cerebellum -Mediates sensorimotor input to the cerebellum
Superior Peduncle -Cerebellum Penducle -Transmit output from the cerebellum to the brainstem and on to the thalamus, motor cortex, and spinal cord (important for motor plans) -Efferent
Origins of Afferent projections to the Cerebellum -spinal cord -brainstem -motor cortex -Afferent to Efferent Axon Ratio 40:1
Vestibulocerebellar Tract -Fiber bundle that enters the cerebellum through the inferior cerebellar penduncle. -Sends info from Semicircular Canals -Maintains Upright Posture -Most of this info goes to the frocular nodular lobe
Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract -Fiber bundle that enters the cerebellum through the inferior cerebellar penduncle. -Brings info From Reticular Formation of the brainstem -Important for unconscious Proprioception From Muscle Spindles, Golgi Tendons and Tactile Receptors
Reticulocerebellar Tract -Fiber bundle that enters the cerebellum through the inferior cerebellar penduncle. -brings Info From Cerebral Cortices, Spinal Cord, Vestibular Complex, and Red Nucleus
Olivocerebellar Tract -Fiber bundle that enters the cerebellum through the inferior cerebellar penduncle. -Carries info from Spinal Cord through Olivary N to Contralateral Cerebellar Hemisphere -Source of Climbing Fibers for Direct Input to Cerebellum from the spinal cord
Cuneocerebellar Tract -Enters cerebellum via the middle cerebellar peduncle -Mediate Proprioception from Upper Limbs & Neck -Carries info From Pontine Nuclei From Opposite Cerebral Cortex, Visual and Auditory Inputs To Opposite Cerebellar Hemisphere
Destinations for efferent pathways from -Go Through Superior Cerebellar Peduncle to the: -Red Nucleus (Brainstem) -Thalamus -Motor Cortex
Three Layers of the Cerebellum 1. Molecular 2. Purkinje 3. Granular
Molecular Most external layer of the cerebellum
Purkinje -Connecting Surface and Deep Cerebellar Nuclei -Source of All Efferent Fibers -Middle layer of the Cerebellum
Granular -Layer of the Cerebellum that has Mossy Fiber Axons that carry info towards the Purkinje Axons. -Deepest layer of the Cerebellum
Signs of cerebellum issues -Impaired Muscle Synergy (person walks like a robot) -Reduced Muscle Tone -Evident in Skilled Tasks
Ataxia -Lack of Order and Coordination in Activities -Slow Movement (Bradykinesia) -Mild Muscular Weakness (Asthenia) -Lack of fluid movement (Asynergia)
Dysdiadochokinesia -Clumsiness in Alternating Movements -Tapping for each Speech Sound used to treat this
Dysmetria -Causes error in Judgment of Range and Distance of Target -Characterized by undershooting or Overshooting
Intentional Tremor -Accessory Movement During Volitional Task (hand steady when limb but tremor when doing something like brushing teeth)
Hypotonia Reduced Resistance to Passive Stretch
Rebounding -Inability to Predict Movement -Cannot Hold Back Movement
Disequilibrium -Unsteady Gait, Body Wavering -deals with the focular nodular lobes
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)- aka stroke of the cerebellum -Can be thrombotic, embolic or hemorrhagic -Location of theses strokes usually in the Vertebrobasilar Artery
Thrombotic stroke When artery is blocked by plaque build up inside artery.
Embolic stroke When plaque breaks off from a larger artery and flows down to a smaller artery and blocks it.
Hemorrhagic Stroke Brain bleed, bursting of an artery
Vertebrobasilar Artery Artery that supplies the occipital lobe and the cerebellum
Toxicity -May cause cerebellar degeneration -Characterized by wide based shuffling -Can cause Kosicoff syndrom (no short term memory)
Friedrich's Ataxia -Progressive Cerebellar Degeneration -Hereditary condition -Is a gradual sheering of the cerebellum. Very diffused axial breakdown -Characterized by Sensory and Motor Dysfunctions
Created by: aramos139